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Mizmor 025 - A Personal Tefillah

(א) לְדָוִד אֵלֶיךָ ה' נַפְשִׁי אֶשָּׂא:
(1) By David. I lift my soul to You, Hashem.
NOTE: For a PDF of this mizmor, please click here. This will enable you to print out the entire text of the article. [Rev 8]
Key Concepts of Mizmor 025 - A Personal Tefillah
The mizmor is an elaborately constructed tefillah in which David pleads with Hashem to save him from his enemies and help him through his other troubles. David realizes that because of his past sins he may be unworthy. Therefore, he presents three considerations which he hopes will lead to a favorable response from Hashem.
First of all he declares his total personal commitment to Hashem. There is nothing more important to David than his relation with G-d. So even if his past actions have not matched the level of his commitment, he hopes his continuing devotion alone will merit favorable consideration.
Secondly, David declares his abiding bitachon in Hashem. When one individual trusts another, the one who is trusted will not want to embarrass the trusting one by failing to come to his aid. Such failure will show the world that the trusting person was mistaken in his trust.
Thirdly, David does teshuvah and ask that his sins be forgiven. He realizes that his past failure to do Hashem’s will may be a result of a lack of understanding Hashem’s expectations. Therefore he declares his intent of studying Hashem’s Torah and humbly asks for guidance in acquiring the necessary knowledge and wisdom. In conjunction with doing teshuvah David renews his commitment to Hashem and his trust in Him.
It is only after completing the process of teshuvah and renewal that David approaches Hashem with an impassioned plea for help out of his difficulties.
David presents these considerations in a reasoned argument distributed over 22 verses. The number 22 corresponds to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet and so the pesukim are arranged in an alphabetic scheme based on the first letter of each posuk.
Exploring the Mizmor
PART 1. COMMITMENT AND BITACHON. David begins by declaring his total commitment to Hashem. He then expresses his trust in Hashem’s coming to his aid. He asks that he not be shamed (his trust violated) by the victory of his enemies.
(א) לְדָוִד אֵלֶיךָ ה' נַפְשִׁי אֶשָּׂא: (ב) אֱלֹקַי בְּךָ בָטַחְתִּי אַל אֵבוֹשָׁה אַל יַעַלְצוּ אֹיְבַי לִי: (ג) גַּם כָּל קֹוֶיךָ לֹא יֵבֹשׁוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ הַבּוֹגְדִים רֵיקָם:
(1) By David. I lift my soul to You, Hashem. (2) My G-d, in You I have trusted. Let me not be shamed. Let my enemies not gloat over me. (3) Let all those who look with hope to You also not be shamed. Let the betrayers be shamed [and turned] back empty-handed.
PART 2. TESHUVAH AND FORGIVENESS. To make it possible for David to do teshuvah properly, He asks Hashem for guidance in understanding His ways. With better knowledge of the Torah and the mitzvos David is confident that he will be better able to do Hashem’s will in the future. He then pleads with Hashem to treat him with mercy so that his teshuvah will be accepted. In conjunction with this plea he praises the goodness and fairness of Hashem that makes it possible for sinners to find forgiveness through teshuvah. Finally, he concludes this part by asking Hashem to be forgiven his sin.
(ד) דְּרָכֶיךָ ה' הוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרְחוֹתֶיךָ לַמְּדֵנִי: (ה) הַדְרִיכֵנִי בַאֲמִתֶּךָ וְלַמְּדֵנִי כִּי אַתָּה אֱלֹקֵי יִשְׁעִי אוֹתְךָ קִוִּיתִי כָּל הַיּוֹם: (ו) זְכֹר רַחֲמֶיךָ ה' וַחֲסָדֶיךָ כִּי מֵעוֹלָם הֵמָּה: (ז) חַטֹּאות נְעוּרַי וּפְשָׁעַי אַל תִּזְכֹּר כְּחַסְדְּךָ זְכָר לִי אַתָּה לְמַעַן טוּבְךָ ה': (ח) טוֹב וְיָשָׁר ה' עַל כֵּן יוֹרֶה חַטָּאִים בַּדָּרֶךְ: (ט) יַדְרֵךְ עֲנָוִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וִילַמֵּד עֲנָוִים דַּרְכּוֹ: (י) כָּל אָרְחוֹת ה' חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת לְנֹצְרֵי בְרִיתוֹ וְעֵדֹתָיו: (יא) לְמַעַן שִׁמְךָ ה' וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֹנִי כִּי רַב הוּא:
(4) Make Your ways known to me, Hashem. Teach me Your paths. (5) Direct me in Your truth. And teach me for You are the G-d of my deliverance. I have put my hope in You at all times. (6) Recall Your mercies, Hashem, and Your kind acts, for they have been from time immemorial. (7) Don’t recall the sins and offenses of my youth. In keeping with Your kindness recall for me [my worthy deeds] for the sake of Your goodness, Hashem. (8) Hashem is good and upright. Therefore He guides sinners on the way. (9) He guides the humble in justice and He teaches His way to the humble. (10) All the paths of Hashem are kindness and truth for those who preserve His covenant and His testimonies. (11) Hashem, because of Your Name, absolve me of my serious transgression even though it is great.
Navigating Tehillim. In his striving for teshuvah David looks for Hashem’s help in learning to live the Torah way of life (verse 4). He says, “Make Your ways known to me, Hashem; teach me Your paths.” In the conclusion of Mizmor 016 David made this quest his primary focus when he said, “Teach me the way to true life”.
PART 3. RENEWAL OF COMMITMENT AND BITACHON. David renews his commitment to Hashem and praises Him for guiding those who are devoted to Him. He concludes with a statement of total bitachon.
(יב) מִי זֶה הָאִישׁ יְרֵא ה' יוֹרֶנּוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ יִבְחָר: (יג) נַפְשׁוֹ בְּטוֹב תָּלִין וְזַרְעוֹ יִירַשׁ אָרֶץ: (יד) סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם: (טו) עֵינַי תָּמִיד אֶל ה' כִּי הוּא יוֹצִיא מֵרֶשֶׁת רַגְלָי:
(12) Whichever man fears Hashem, He will guide him in the way that he should choose. (13) His soul will abide in goodness and his offspring will inherit the land. (14) The mystery of Hashem is for those who fear Him. And He makes known His covenant to them. (15) My eyes are always toward Hashem for He removes my feet from the snare.
PART 4. PLEA FOR A YESHUAH. David asks for a personal yeshuah (deliverance) from his difficult situation. Recognizing that he may be unworthy of a yeshuah, David concludes by asking that his nation Yisrael not be prevented from being saved.
(טז) פְּנֵה אֵלַי וְחָנֵּנִי כִּי יָחִיד וְעָנִי אָנִי: (יז) צָרוֹת לְבָבִי הִרְחִיבוּ מִמְּצוּקוֹתַי הוֹצִיאֵנִי: (יח) רְאֵה עָנְיִי וַעֲמָלִי וְשָׂא לְכָל חַטֹּאותָי: (יט) רְאֵה אוֹיְבַי כִּי רָבּוּ וְשִׂנְאַת חָמָס שְׂנֵאוּנִי: (כ) שָׁמְרָה נַפְשִׁי וְהַצִּילֵנִי אַל אֵבוֹשׁ כִּי חָסִיתִי בָךְ: (כא) תֹּם וָיֹשֶׁר יִצְּרוּנִי כִּי קִוִּיתִיךָ: (כב) פְּדֵה אֱלֹקִים אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכֹּל צָרוֹתָיו:
(16) Turn to me and have pity on me for I am alone and impoverished. (17) The anxieties of my heart have multiplied. Take me out of my difficulties. (18) See my suffering and my toil, and forgive all my sins. (19) See my enemies for they have increased. And with a vicious hatred they despise me. (20) Protect my soul and rescue me; let me not be shamed for I take refuge in You (21) Let [my] innocence and uprightness protect me. I have put my hope in You. (22) O G-d, redeem Yisrael from all its troubles.
Additional Thoughts
Mizmor 025 is a personal tefillah to Hashem, which is very different from the public celebration of the inauguration of the Bais Hamikdash in Mizmor 024. However, Mizmor 025 opens with the phrase “I will lift my soul” which reminds us of the phrase “Lift up your heads, O gates” at the end of Mizmor 024. Perhaps the gates of the Bais Hamikdash are being compared to a person who is asked to open himself up and make a commitment to admit Hashem into his heart and soul.
Learning the Mizmor
PART 1. COMMITMENT AND BITACHON.
(א) לְדָוִד, אֵלֶיךָ ה' 
נַפְשִׁי אֶשָּׂא:
This song is a mizmor composed by David  לְדָוִד I lift my soul — נַפְשִׁי אֶשָּׂא , offering my very being in devotion to You Hashem — אֵלֶיךָ ה' . All my strivings in life are directed only to You.
(ב) אֱלֹקַי בְּךָ בָטַחְתִּי
My G-d, in You I have faithfully trusted — אֱלֹקַי בְּךָ בָטַחְתִּי  and people have identified me as Your servant.
אַל אֵבוֹשָׁה 
אַל יַעַלְצוּ אֹיְבַי לִי:
Even if I am still unworthy let me not be shamed — אַל אֵבוֹשָׁה  by defeat because my weakness will reflect on You. Don’t let my enemies gloat over me — אַל יַעַלְצוּ אֹיְבַי לִי .
(ג) גַּם כָּל קֹוֶיךָ לֹא יֵבֹשׁוּ
It is not for me alone that I ask. For when You help me, all of my people who look with hope to You — כָּל קֹוֶיךָ  will be encouraged. They will then also not be shamed — גַּם לֹא יֵבֹשׁוּ  when the enemy mocks them.
יֵבֹשׁוּ הַבּוֹגְדִים רֵיקָם:
Instead, the evil betrayers will be shamed — יֵבֹשׁוּ הַבּוֹגְדִים  for they will be turned back empty-handed — -רֵיקָם from their destructive purposes.
PART 2. TESHUVAH AND FORGIVENESS.
(ד) דְּרָכֶיךָ ה' הוֹדִיעֵנִי
Since I am totally committed to You, I want to do teshuvah and serve You properly. So make Your ways of righteousness known to me, Hashem — דְּרָכֶיךָ ה' הוֹדִיעֵנִי .
אֹרְחוֹתֶיךָ לַמְּדֵנִי:
Teach me Your prescribed paths of behavior — אֹרְחוֹתֶיךָ לַמְּדֵנִי  so that all of my middos are in accordance with Your will.
(ה) הַדְרִיכֵנִי בַאֲמִתֶּךָ וְלַמְּדֵנִי
כִּי אַתָּה אֱלֹקֵי יִשְׁעִי
Direct me  הַדְרִיכֵנִי  in the practice of mitzvos that are incorporated in the Torah, which is Your truth — בַאֲמִתֶּךָ And teach me — וְלַמְּדֵנִי  to absorb that truth into my behavior, for then I will be worthy of seeing You as the G-d of my deliverance — כִּי אַתָּה אֱלֹקַי יִשְׁעִי .
אוֹתְךָ קִוִּיתִי כָּל הַיּוֹם:
I have put my hope in You at all times — אוֹתְךָ קִוִּיתִי כָּל הַיּוֹם  and so I am open to grasping Your wisdom.
(ו) זְכֹר רַחֲמֶיךָ ה'
וַחֲסָדֶיךָ כִּי מֵעוֹלָם הֵמָּה:
Deal kindly with me now as You have in the past, for the world cannot exist without Your kindness. Recall for me now Your mercies, Hashem — זְכֹר רַחֲמֶיךָ ה' , and don’t punish me for the sins which I committed under the influence of my troubles. And recall Your kind acts — וַחֲסָדֶיךָ , for they have been with me from time immemorial — כִּי מֵעוֹלָם הֵמָּה . Your very Creation of this world was an expression of Your kindness.
(ז) חַטֹּאות נְעוּרַי וּפְשָׁעַי אַל תִּזְכֹּר
While You recall Your mercies of the past, please don’t recall the minor sins of my youth  חַטֹּאות נְעוּרַי  for I was too immature to understand what I was doing. Don’t let my youthful ingratitude prevent You from responding to my heartfelt appeal. But especially, don’t recall the serious offenses  וּפְשָׁעַי אַל תִּזְכֹּר  of my later years.
כְּחַסְדְּךָ זְכָר לִי אַתָּה 
לְמַעַן טוּבְךָ ה':
In keeping with Your kindness — כְּחַסְדְּךָ , I ask that You recall for me  זְכָר לִי אַתָּה  only my worthy deeds. Do this not for my sake, but for the sake of Your goodness, Hashem — לְמַעַן טוּבְךָ ה'  because if You are too demanding there will be no one left who is worthy of Your goodness.
(ח) טוֹב וְיָשָׁר ה'
עַל כֵּן יוֹרֶה חַטָּאִים בַּדָּרֶךְ:
Good and upright is Hashem — טוֹב וְיָשָׁר ה' . He shows His goodness by incorporating the whole concept of teshuvah into Creation for the benefit of mankind. And He shows His fairness by granting forgiveness to those who do teshuvah with sincerity. Therefore He guides sinners who are on the way — עַל כֵּן יוֹרֶה חַטָּאִים בַּדָּרֶךְ  of teshuvah.
(ט) יַדְרֵךְ עֲנָוִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט 
וִילַמֵּד עֲנָוִים דַּרְכּוֹ:
He guides the humble people who submit to teshuvah, instructing them in the demands of justice — יַדְרֵךְ עֲנָוִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט . And He teaches those humble people by rewarding them when they turn to His way — וִילַמֵּד עֲנָוִים דַּרְכּוֹ .
(י) כָּל אָרְחוֹת ה' חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת 
לְנֹצְרֵי בְרִיתוֹ וְעֵדֹתָיו:
All the paths of Hashem — כָּל אָרְחוֹת ה'  follow a balance of kindness and truth — חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת . Hashem grants an understanding of this balance to those who guard His covenant — לְנֹצְרֵי בְרִיתוֹ  with their faith, as well as to those who preserve His testimonies  וְעֵדֹתָיו , which are the mitzvos that testify to the wonders He has performed.
(יא) לְמַעַן שִׁמְךָ ה'
וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֹנִי כִּי רַב הוּא:
Hashem, because of the truth of Your Name, which is ‘good and upright’  לְמַעַן שִׁמְךָ ה' , absolve me of my most serious transgression even though it is great — וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֹנִי כִּי רַב הוּא .
PART 3. RENEWAL OF COMMITMENT AND BITACHON.
(יב) מִי זֶה הָאִישׁ יְרֵא ה' 
יוֹרֶנּוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ יִבְחָר:
Whichever man sincerely fears Hashem — מִי זֶה הָאִישׁ יְרֵא ה' , let him not be discouraged, even when he is confused about what to do next, for Hashem will guide him in the way that he should choose  יוֹרֶנּוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ יִבְחָר .
(יג) נַפְשׁוֹ בְּטוֹב תָּלִין 
וְזַרְעוֹ יִירַשׁ אָרֶץ:
His soul will abide in goodness — נַפְשׁוֹ בְּטוֹב תָּלִין  in the World to Come, and his offspring will inherit the land — וְזַרְעוֹ יִירַשׁ אָרֶץ  in This World, for he will pass on his wisdom to them.
(יד) סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו 
וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם:
The mystery of Hashem pertaining to the study of Creation and the World to Come is revealed only to a select few of those who fear Him — סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו – and who scrupulously observe His mitzvos. But He makes known to them the basic interpretation of His covenant — וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם  through rational analysis.
(טו) עֵינַי תָּמִיד אֶל ה' 
כִּי הוּא יוֹצִיא מֵרֶשֶׁת רַגְלָי:
My eyes are always directed toward Hashem — עֵינַי תָּמִיד אֶל ה'  and I feel myself to be continually in His presence. For — כִּי  through my awareness of Him, He helps me control my yetzer hara and He removes my feet from the snare of sin — הוּא יוֹצִיא מֵרֶשֶׁת רַגְלָי .
PART 4. PLEA FOR A YESHUAH.
(טז) פְּנֵה אֵלַי וְחָנֵּנִי 
כִּי יָחִיד וְעָנִי אָנִי:
Hashem, turn to me and cast the light of Your goodwill upon me. I beg You to take pity upon me — פְּנֵה אֵלַי וְחָנֵּנִי for although I appear to have the royal power of a king, at heart I am alone and impoverished — כִּי יָחִיד וְעָנִי אָנִי . I feel powerless because I know that I am nothing without Your favor.
(יז) צָרוֹת לְבָבִי הִרְחִיבוּ 
מִמְּצוּקוֹתַי הוֹצִיאֵנִי:
The anxieties felt by my heart due to my harships have multiplied — צָרוֹת לְבָבִי הִרְחִיבוּ . Take me out of my difficulties — מִמְּצוּקוֹתַי הוֹצִיאֵנִי  for they prevent me from devoting myself to Your service!
(יח) רְאֵה עָנְיִי וַעֲמָלִי 
וְשָׂא לְכָל חַטֹּאותָי:
Direct Your attention to see my suffering — רְאֵה עָנְיִי  and my tiring labor — וַעֲמָלִי , all of which I must endure to deal with the challenges I face. And so in consideration of my pain, forgive all my sins — וְשָׂא לְכָל חַטֹּאותָי  and ease my suffering. Then I will be better able to devote myself to Your service.
(יט) רְאֵה אוֹיְבַי כִּי רָבּוּ 
וְשִׂנְאַת חָמָס שְׂנֵאוּנִי:
Direct Your attention to see the harm done by my enemies — רְאֵה אוֹיְבַי , for while I worked to earn Your favor, they have increased — כִּי רָבּוּ  in number. And at the same time, with a vicious hatred they despise me — וְשִׂנְאַת חָמָס שְׂנֵאוּנִי .
(כ) שָׁמְרָה נַפְשִׁי וְהַצִּילֵנִי 
אַל אֵבוֹשׁ כִּי חָסִיתִי בָךְ:
Protect my soul and rescue me — שָׁמְרָה נַפְשִׁי וְהַצִּילֵנִי . Don’t let me be shamed by their victories over me — אַל אֵבוֹשׁ , for I take refuge in You — כִּי חָסִיתִי בָךְ .
(כא) תֹּם וָיֹשֶׁר יִצְּרוּנִי 
כִּי קִוִּיתִיךָ:
Let my continued innocence and uprightness protect me — תֹּם וָיֹשֶׁר יִצְּרוּנִי – against my enemies in contrast to their unwarranted hatred. For — כִּי  despite all of my difficulties I have put my hope in You — קִוִּיתִיךָ . Accordingly, instead of my innocence and uprightness being a drawback in dealing with an unscrupulous enemy, let them be of help to me.
(כב) פְּדֵה אֱלֹקִים אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל 
מִכֹּל צָרוֹתָיו:
Even if I am unworthy and my tefillah for personal victory over my enemies remains unfulfilled, let my faults not reflect upon my nation, which is surely worthy of being saved. Therefore, I ask You O G-d, redeem Yisrael  פְּדֵה אֱלֹקִים אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל  from all its troubles  מִכֹּל צָרוֹתָיו . If You save them, they will surely serve You wholeheartedly.
Living the Mizmor
Listed below are some of the lessons that you can draw from this mizmor, as well as some of the thoughts you might have in mind when you say the words of the mizmor as a tefillah asking for your needs, or expressing your devotion to Hashem.
Tefillos for Life - Your Relationship with Hashem.
[25:1] COMMITMENT. – אֵלֶיךָ ה' נַפְשִׁי אֶשָּׂא – “I lift my soul to You, Hashem.” Commit yourself totally to the service of your Creator by concentrating all of your mental and emotional resources on the words of your tefillos to Him.
[25:16] PITY. – פְּנֵה אֵלַי וְחָנֵּנִי כִּי יָחִיד וְעָנִי אָנִי: – “Turn to me and have pity on me for I am alone and impoverished.” Plead with Hashem to grant you His favor because you have no one to help you out of your present difficulties. Even if you feel that you have been challenged with a unique trouble and that nobody is suffering as you are, don’t be discouraged but turn to Hashem.
Tefillos for Life - Your Yeshuah.
[25:2] BEING SHAMED. – אֱלֹקַי בְּךָ בָטַחְתִּי אַל אֵבוֹשָׁה אַל יַעַלְצוּ אֹיְבַי לִי – “My G-d, in You I have trusted. Let me not be shamed. Let my enemies not gloat over me.” Ask Hashem to keep you from being shamed before those who wish to harm you because your enemies are His enemies and your defeat will be a reflection on the One in Whom you have trusted.
[25:3] FUTURE DELIVERANCE. – גַּם כָּל קֹוֶיךָ לֹא יֵבֹשׁוּ – “Let all those who look with hope to You also not be shamed.” Ask Hashem not to limit His deliverance to you, but to grant it to all who have bitachon in Him throughout the coming years.
Tefillos for Life - Your Teshuvah.
[25:4] TORAH. – דְּרָכֶיךָ ה' הוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרְחוֹתֶיךָ לַמְּדֵנִי – “Make Your ways known to me, Hashem. Teach me Your paths.” Ask Hashem to help you learn and understand the Torah.
[25:7] EARLY SINS. – חַטֹּאות נְעוּרַי וּפְשָׁעַי אַל תִּזְכֹּר – “Don’t recall the sins and offenses of my youth.” Ask Hashem to treat your early sins as though they never happened, for you were carried away by the foolishness of youth.
[25:11] RECENT SINS. – לְמַעַן שִׁמְךָ ה' וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֹנִי כִּי רַב הוּא – “Hashem, because of Your Name, absolve me of my serious transgression even though it is great.” Confess the seriousness of your sins and ask Hashem to forgive you. If your sincere He will surely do so because of His Name (“good and upright.)” Bear in mind that your sins are painful to Hashem. Therefore if you feel anguish about the effect upon Him of the greatness of your sins, that would be a reason for Him to absolve you of them.
Tehillos for Life - Contemplation of Hashem.
[25:8] GOOD AND UPRIGHT. – טוֹב וְיָשָׁר ה' עַל כֵּן יוֹרֶה חַטָּאִים בַּדָּרֶךְ – “Hashem is good and upright. Therefore He guides sinners on the way.” You can trust Hashem to do what is right and to do what is best for you, because He cares for your well-being and gives you the help you need, if you ask for it.
[25:9] COMMITMENT. – יַדְרֵךְ עֲנָוִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וִילַמֵּד עֲנָוִים דַּרְכּוֹ – “He guides the humble in justice and He teaches His way to the humble.
[25:14] THE MYSTERY. – סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם – “The mystery of Hashem is for those who fear Him. And He makes known His covenant to them.” Hashem’s Torah has infinite depths, which are revealed to those who are worthy.
Lessons for Life - Your Attitude.
[25:9] HUMILITY. – יַדְרֵךְ עֲנָוִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וִילַמֵּד עֲנָוִים דַּרְכּוֹ – “He guides the humble in justice and He teaches His way to the humble.” By practising humility you will become worthy of acquiring the wisdom of the Torah. The best example for this is Moshe Rabbeinu, who excelled in humility and in knowledge of the Torah, which he taught to his nation.
Lessons for Life - Your Behavior.
[25:13] GOOD CHILDREN. – נַפְשׁוֹ בְּטוֹב תָּלִין וְזַרְעוֹ יִירַשׁ אָרֶץ – “His soul will abide in goodness and his offspring will inherit the land.” There is a connection between the goodness with which you conduct your home and the effect upon your children, so that they will follow the way of Hashem and become worthy of inheriting the land of life.
Tefillos for Life - Your Geulah.
[25:22] REDEMPTION. – פְּדֵה אֱלֹקִים אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכֹּל צָרוֹתָיו – “O G-d, redeem Yisrael from all its troubles.” Even if you are not worthy, plead with Hashem to save your nation.
Sources
The primary sources used in the interpretation of the verses of this mizmor are listed below.
א - רש"י, אבן עזרא, מצודות, באר אברהם, מלבי"ם, טיב התהילות
ב - ספורנו, נר לרגלי, טיב התהילות
ג - רד"ק, ספורנו, אבן יחייא, מצודות, טיב התהילות
ד - ספורנו, אבן יחייא, באר אברהם
ה - ספורנו, מצודות, באר אברהם, מלבי"ם
ו - רד"ק, המאירי, ספורנו, אבן יחייא
ז - רד"ק, המאירי, אבן יחייא, מצודות, מלבי"ם, נר לרגלי
ח - רד"ק, מצודות, נר לרגלי
ט - רד"ק, נר לרגלי, טיב התהילות
י - באר אברהם, מלבי"ם
יא - המאירי, מצודות, מלבי"ם, טיב התהילות
יב - רש"י, רד"ק, המאירי, נר לרגלי
יג - רש"י, רד"ק, אבן יחייא,
יד - רד"ק, המאירי
טו - אבן עזרא, אבן יחייא, נר לרגלי
טז - אבן עזרא, רד"ק, אבן יחייא, טיב התהילות
יז - רד"ק, מצודות
יח - אבן עזרא, רד"ק, המאירי, אבן יחייא, מלבי"ם, נר לרגלי
יט - אבן יחייא, מלבי"ם
כ - אבן עזרא
כא - רש"י, רד"ק, מצודות, באר אברהם, מלבי"ם
כב - רד"ק, באר אברהם, נר לרגלי