(א) מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֵ־ל אֱלֹקִים ה’ דִּבֶּר וַיִּקְרָא אָרֶץ מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ עַד מְבֹאוֹ:
(1) A mizmor by Asaph. Almighty G-d, Hashem has spoken, summoning the inhabited world, from the rising of the sun to its setting.
NOTE: For a PDF of this mizmor, please click here. This will enable you to print out the entire text of the article. [Rev 9]
Key Concepts of Mizmor 050 – Preparing for Judgment
This mizmor is set at a future time of universal judgment. It is a time when Hashem judges all of mankind and renews His covenant with the Jewish people. After describing the call to judgment the singer presents the voice of Hashem directing His people to prepare for judgment by doing sincere teshuvah (repentance) and correcting their ways. He tells the people that the teshuvah that they have done in the past is inadequate because it lacks sincerity. Their emphasis has been on the external forms of the avodah (service) rather than on their connection to Him.
Furthermore, the manner in which the people deal with each other does not adequately reflect the covenant which He made with them at Sinai. Many people study the Torah but without real commitment to adhere to its laws in daily practice. If the Jewish people are to survive the coming judgment they must recognize their failings and resolve to mend their ways.
Navigating Tehillim (1). This is the first of 12 mizmorim that were authored by Asaph, reputed to have been one of the sons of Korach (Vayikra Rabbah 17:1). The rest of Asaph’s mizmorim are grouped together in a series, starting with 073. Asaph was enabled to compose these mizmorim through the power of nevuah (prophecy). They were subsequently incorporated by David into the Book of Tehillim.
Navigating Tehillim (2). This mizmor emphasizes the importance of sincerity when doing teshuvah in preparation for judgment. Another aspect of teshuvah is presented in Mizmor 032, which reminds us that teshuvah brings great benefits to mankind, especially the joy of being free of sin.
Exploring the Mizmor
PART 1. THE SUMMONS. All of mankind is summoned to Yerushayim to be judged and held accountable for their actions, especially for the spilling of Jewish blood.
(א) מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֵ־ל אֱלֹקִים ה’ דִּבֶּר וַיִּקְרָא אָרֶץ מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ עַד מְבֹאוֹ: (ב) מִצִּיּוֹן מִכְלַל יֹפִי אֱלֹקִים הוֹפִיעַ: (ג) יָבֹא אֱלֹקֵינוּ וְאַל יֶחֱרַשׁ אֵשׁ לְפָנָיו תֹּאכֵל וּסְבִיבָיו נִשְׂעֲרָה מְאֹד:
(1) A mizmor by Asaph. Almighty G-d, Hashem has spoken, summoning the inhabited world, from the rising of the sun to its setting. (2) Out of Tzion, epitome of beauty, G-d appeared. (3) May our G-d come and not be silent, a consuming fire before Him, surrounded with an intense storm-wind.
PART 2. THE WITNESSES. Because of the covenant that Hashem sealed with the Jewish people they are held up to a higher standard than the other nations. Heaven and earth were witnesses to that covenant (Devarim 32:1) and are now summoned to participate in the judgment.
(ד) יִקְרָא אֶל הַשָּׁמַיִם מֵעָל וְאֶל הָאָרֶץ לָדִין עַמּוֹ: (ה) אִסְפוּ לִי חֲסִידָי כֹּרְתֵי בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי זָבַח: (ו) וַיַּגִּידוּ שָׁמַיִם צִדְקוֹ כִּי אֱלֹקִים שֹׁפֵט הוּא סֶלָה:
(4) He summons the heavens above and the earth so that He may judge His people. (5) “Gather to Me My devout ones, who committed themselves to My covenant.” (6) The heavens proclaim His righteousness, for G-d is the Judge, Selah.
PART 3. SINCERITY IN TESHUVAH. Hashem calls upon the Jewish people to do sincere teshuvah in preparation for judgment. The mere mechanical performance of the rites of avodah does not please Him. When Jews brought sacrificial offerings they often forgot that the purpose of the offerings is to affirm the emotional bond between the people and their G-d. Without that bond, the physical act of sacrificing animals on His Altar has no meaning.
(ז) שִׁמְעָה עַמִּי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה, יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָעִידָה בָּךְ, אֱלֹקִים אֱלֹקֶיךָ אָנֹכִי: (ח) לֹא עַל זְבָחֶיךָ אוֹכִיחֶךָ וְעוֹלֹתֶיךָ לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד: (ט) לֹא אֶקַּח מִבֵּיתְךָ פָר מִמִּכְלְאֹתֶיךָ עַתּוּדִים: (י) כִּי לִי כָל חַיְתוֹ יָעַר בְּהֵמוֹת בְּהַרְרֵי אָלֶף: (יא) יָדַעְתִּי כָּל עוֹף הָרִים וְזִיז שָׂדַי עִמָּדִי: (יב) אִם אֶרְעַב לֹא אֹמַר לָךְ כִּי לִי תֵבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ: (יג) הַאוֹכַל בְּשַׂר אַבִּירִים וְדַם עַתּוּדִים אֶשְׁתֶּה: (יד) זְבַח לֵאלֹקִים תּוֹדָה וְשַׁלֵּם לְעֶלְיוֹן נְדָרֶיךָ: (טו) וּקְרָאֵנִי בְּיוֹם צָרָה אֲחַלֶּצְךָ וּתְכַבְּדֵנִי:
(7) Listen, My people, for I shall pronounce [My judgment]. Yisrael, I shall formally caution you, [for I am] G-d. I am your G-d. (8) I will not be rebuking you for your sacrifices, for your burnt-offerings [have been] continually before me. (9) I do not [want to] take a bull from your house or goats from your pens. (10) For Mine is every beast of the forest [and] the cattle of thousand mountains. (11) I know every bird of the mountains and what creeps upon My fields is with Me. (12) If I had a need to eat I would not tell you. For Mine is the world and all that fills it. (13) Do I eat the flesh of sturdy bulls? Do I drink the blood of goats? (14) Offer to God confession. Then, fulfill your vows to the Most High. (15) And call upon Me in the day of distress. I will free you and [thereby] you will be honoring Me.
PART 4. OBEDIENCE TO THE LAW. Hashem admonishes the people concerning their failure to adhere to the laws of the Torah, especially in their relationships with each other. Up to this point the mizmor has focused upon those who bring offerings of atonement, but without doing sincere teshuvah for their sins. Now the singer speaks of those who have been judged as wicked for they learn the Torah but fail to observe it. Thus, they set a bad example for others and bring the Torah into contempt and ridicule.
(טז) וְלָרָשָׁע אָמַר אֱלֹקִים מַה לְּךָ לְסַפֵּר חֻקָּי וַתִּשָּׂא בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי פִיךָ: (יז) וְאַתָּה שָׂנֵאתָ מוּסָר וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ דְּבָרַי אַחֲרֶיךָ: (יח) אִם רָאִיתָ גַנָּב וַתִּרֶץ עִמּוֹ וְעִם מְנָאֲפִים חֶלְקֶךָ: (יט) פִּיךָ שָׁלַחְתָּ בְרָעָה וּלְשׁוֹנְךָ תַּצְמִיד מִרְמָה: (כ) תֵּשֵׁב בְּאָחִיךָ תְדַבֵּר בְּבֶן אִמְּךָ תִּתֶּן דֹּפִי: (כא) אֵלֶּה עָשִׂיתָ וְהֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי דִּמִּיתָ הֱיוֹת אֶהְיֶה כָמוֹךָ אוֹכִיחֲךָ וְאֶעֶרְכָה לְעֵינֶיךָ: (כב) בִּינוּ נָא זֹאת שֹׁכְחֵי אֱלוֹקַּ פֶּן אֶטְרֹף וְאֵין מַצִּיל:
(16) But to the wicked, God says: “Why do you recite My laws? And carry My covenant in your mouth?” (17) You have detested mussar. You threw My words behind you.(18) If you see a thief you run to him and you [cast] your lot with philanderers. (19) You let loose your mouth to cause harm. And your tongue clings fast to deceit. (20) You sit and speak against your kinsman. You slander your mother’s son. (21) You have done these [things] but I have kept silent. Did you think that I might possibly be like you. I will rebuke you and lay out clearly [your wicked behavior] before your eyes. (22) Reflect upon this now, you who forget G-d before I tear you apart with no one to save you.
PART 5. CONCLUSION. Hashem concludes His admonition, reminding the people that to merit being granted a yeshuah (deliverance) they need to introduce sincere teshuvah into their avodah and they need to apply the precepts of the Torah to the way they live their life.
(כג) זֹבֵחַ תּוֹדָה יְכַבְּדָנְנִי וְשָׂם דֶּרֶךְ אַרְאֶנּוּ בְּיֵשַׁע אֱלֹקִים:
(23) [The one who] brings a sacrificial offering of confession, honors Me. If he sets [an upright] way, I will show him the yeshuah of G-d.
Learning the Mizmor
PART 1. THE SUMMONS.
(א) מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף
This is a mizmor that was prepared by Asaph — מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף .
אֵ־ל אֱלֹקִים ה‘ דִּבֶּר
וַיִּקְרָא אָרֶץ מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ עַד מְבֹאוֹ:
The One Who judges all mankind is known by His Names as the Almighty — אֵ־ל , Who possesses unlimited power to enforce judgment, G-d — אֱלֹקִים , who judges with unlimited wisdom, Hashem — ה‘ , the Source of all existence, past and future. He has spoken — דִּבֶּר , summoning the entire inhabited world — וַיִּקְרָא אָרֶץ , from as far away as the rising of the sun — מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ – in the east to its setting — עַד מְבֹאוֹ – in the west.
(ב) מִצִּיּוֹן מִכְלַל יֹפִי
Hashem rules over the entire universe but has chosen Yerushalayim as His special place, linking the material world to the spiritual world. Thus, it is out of Tzion, the epitome of spiritual beauty — מִצִּיּוֹן מִכְלַל יֹפִי , that the glory of G-d has appeared — אֱלֹקִים הוֹפִיעַ – and summoned mankind to judgment.
(ג) יָבֹא אֱלֹקֵינוּ וְאַל יֶחֱרַשׁ
May our G-d come forward and not be silent — יָבֹא אֱלֹקֵינוּ וְאַל יֶחֱרַשׁ – in the face of the Jewish blood that has been spilled.
אֵשׁ לְפָנָיו תֹּאכֵל
וּסְבִיבָיו נִשְׂעֲרָה מְאֹד:
May He appear with a consuming fire that goes before Him — אֵשׁ לְפָנָיו תֹּאכֵל – and surrounded with an intense storm-wind — וּסְבִיבָיו נִשְׂעֲרָה מְאֹד – to feed the fire and punish the wicked.
PART 2. THE WITNESSES.
(ד) יִקְרָא אֶל הַשָּׁמַיִם מֵעָל
He summons the heavens above — יִקְרָא אֶל הַשָּׁמַיִם מֵעָל – and the earth below to bear witness — וְאֶל הָאָרֶץ – so that He may judge His people — לָדִין עַמּוֹ – and avenge the evil that has been perpetrated upon them.
When Hashem made a covenant with Yisrael, He called upon heaven and earth to serve as witnesses. Let Him now summon them to participate in the act of judgment.
(ה) אִסְפוּ לִי חֲסִידָי כֹּרְתֵי בְרִיתִי
[Hashem tells heaven and earth:] Gather to Me the people of Yisrael, My devout ones — אִסְפוּ לִי חֲסִידָי , who committed themselves to observe My covenant — כֹּרְתֵי בְרִיתִי – and sealed the pact with sacrificial offerings — עֲלֵי זָבַח .
(ו) וַיַּגִּידוּ שָׁמַיִם צִדְקוֹ
כִּי אֱלֹקִים שֹׁפֵט הוּא סֶלָה:
There are people who, with limited knowledge, question the fairness of Hashem’s judgment. But their perspective is limited by their short life span. They are disappointed when the wicked prosper and the scales of justice are not immediately balanced. But the heavens, which outlast human history see all and they proclaim His righteousness — וַיַּגִּידוּ שָׁמַיִם צִדְקוֹ , for G-d is the eternal Judge, Selah — כִּי אֱלֹקִים שֹׁפֵט הוּא סֶלָה , Who is not in any way constrained by the passage of time.
PART 3. SINCERITY IN TESHUVAH.
(ז) שִׁמְעָה עַמִּי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה
Listen, My people, for I shall now pronounce — שִׁמְעָה עַמִּי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה – My judgment and renew My covenant with those of you who are deserving to survive.
יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָעִידָה בָּךְ
אֱלֹקִים אֱלֹקֶיךָ אָנֹכִי:
Listen, Yisrael, and I shall call the witnesses to the covenant and formally caution you — יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָעִידָה בָּךְ , for I am G-d — אֱלֹקִים – of the entire universe, but at Sinai when I made the covenant with you I said I am your G-d — אֱלֹקֶיךָ אָנֹכִי – for I expect you to comply with My will. If you will accept this admonishment you will survive.
(ח) לֹא עַל זְבָחֶיךָ אוֹכִיחֶךָ
וְעוֹלֹתֶיךָ לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד:
When you sinned with the Golden Calf I gave you the opportunity to atone through sacrificial offerings in the Mishkan (Tabernacle). But don’t think that the mechanical performance of these services is what I want. If you fail Me again I will not be rebuking you for failing to bring me your sacrifices — לֹא עַל זְבָחֶיךָ אוֹכִיחֶךָ , nor will I be rebuking you for your burnt-offerings which have actually been continually before Me — וְעוֹלֹתֶיךָ לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד .
(ט) לֹא אֶקַּח מִבֵּיתְךָ פָר
I do not have any desire to take — לֹא אֶקַּח – a sacrificial bull from your house — מִבֵּיתְךָ פָר , for the bull is already Mine. It is not the physical animal that I want, but your commitment. By the same token I have no interest in taking goats from your pens — מִמִּכְלְאֹתֶיךָ עַתּוּדִים .
(י) כִּי לִי כָל חַיְתוֹ יָעַר
בְּהֵמוֹת בְּהַרְרֵי אָלֶף:
For Mine is every beast of the forest — כִּי לִי כָל חַיְתוֹ יָעַר , the cattle of a thousand mountains — בְּהֵמוֹת בְּהַרְרֵי אָלֶף . They are spread out everywhere so that if I want them they are available to Me. So I surely have no need of your sacrifices.
(יא) יָדַעְתִּי כָּל עוֹף הָרִים
וְזִיז שָׂדַי עִמָּדִי:
Your knowledge of living creatures is only the smallest fraction of what I have created. You are only familiar with the creatures that you come into contact with. But I know every bird of the mountains — יָדַעְתִּי כָּל עוֹף הָרִים , and what creeps upon My fields is with Me — וְזִיז שָׂדַי עִמָּדִי .
(יב) אִם אֶרְעַב לֹא אֹמַר לָךְ
כִּי לִי תֵבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ:
If I were like a human being and had a need to eat I would not need to tell you — אִם אֶרְעַב לֹא אֹמַר לָךְ – to provide Me with food, for I have it already. For Mine is the world and all the creatures that fill it — כִּי לִי תֵבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ . So why would I depend on your good will?
(יג) הַאוֹכַל בְּשַׂר אַבִּירִים
וְדַם עַתּוּדִים אֶשְׁתֶּה:
What benefit do I get out of your sacrifices? Do I need to eat the flesh of sturdy bulls — הַאוֹכַל בְּשַׂר אַבִּירִים ? Do I need to drink the blood of goats — וְדַם עַתּוּדִים אֶשְׁתֶּה ? Why would I choose to have you provide Me with sacrifices if it were only for a non-existent physical benefit? The benefit I seek is what is in your heart.
(יד) זְבַח לֵאלֹקִים תּוֹדָה
וְשַׁלֵּם לְעֶלְיוֹן נְדָרֶיךָ:
Offer as your sacrifice to G-d your heartfelt confession — זְבַח לֵאלֹקִים תּוֹדָה – and beg Him to forgive your sins. Then, apply that sincerity when you fufill your vows to the Most High — וְשַׁלֵּם לְעֶלְיוֹן נְדָרֶיךָ . If you make a vow asking for His help, don’t be ungrateful when He blesses you with good fortune. You made a commitment; show your gratitude conscientiously and with devotion.
(טו) וּקְרָאֵנִי בְּיוֹם צָרָה
And call upon Me in the day of distress — וּקְרָאֵנִי בְּיוֹם צָרָה . Even if it is only a call for help without extensive appeals for mercy, I will respond and I will free you — אֲחַלֶּצְךָ – from your troubles. By sincerely trusting Me to help you, you will be honoring Me — וּתְכַבְּדֵנִי . This honor will come about because in saving you I will demonstrate My hashgachah (ongoing supervision) of the world. In fact, My help will be forthcoming without the need for intermediaries such as malachim (ministering angels). But if your tefillos are insincere and you have no intent of doing real teshuvah, you will not be honoring Me; on the contrary you will be insulting Me. Don’t think that I am unaware of what is in your heart.
PART 4. OBEDIENCE TO THE LAW.
(טז) וְלָרָשָׁע אָמַר אֱלֹקִים
מַה לְּךָ לְסַפֵּר חֻקָּי
וַתִּשָּׂא בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי פִיךָ:
But to the wicked, G-d says — וְלָרָשָׁע אָמַר אֱלֹקִים : Why do you recite My laws — מַה לְּךָ לְסַפֵּר חֻקָּי ? After all, you don’t take them seriously! And why do you continue to carry the words of My covenant, the Torah, in your mouth — וַתִּשָּׂא בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי פִיךָ ? You don’t keep them in your heart and you don’t honor them with your actions.
(יז) וְאַתָּה שָׂנֵאתָ מוּסָר
וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ דְּבָרַי אַחֲרֶיךָ:
You have detested mussar and any constraints upon your behavior — וְאַתָּה שָׂנֵאתָ מוּסָר – so your learning was an academic exercise, with no intention of relating it to actions. It would have been better if you did not learn at all, for then at least you could claim your actions were done out of ignorance. You threw My words of well-founded criticism behind you — וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ דְּבָרַי אַחֲרֶיךָ , summarily rejecting them without even taking the time to think about their significance to your life.
. (יח) אִם רָאִיתָ גַנָּב וַתִּרֶץ עִמּוֹ
וְעִם מְנָאֲפִים חֶלְקֶךָ:
Instead of responding to words of mussar, you are attracted to opportunities for sinful behavior. If you see a thief you run to join up with him — אִם רָאִיתָ גַנָּב וַתִּרֶץ עִמּוֹ , and you cast your lot with philanderers — וְעִם מְנָאֲפִים חֶלְקֶךָ .
(יט) פִּיךָ שָׁלַחְתָּ בְרָעָה
וּלְשׁוֹנְךָ תַּצְמִיד מִרְמָה:
You let loose the words of your mouth to cause harm — פִּיךָ שָׁלַחְתָּ בְרָעָה – to others in public. And your tongue secretly clings fast to deceit — וּלְשׁוֹנְךָ תַּצְמִיד מִרְמָה – which you practice in private dealings whenever the opportunity arises. The same mouth with which you expound the laws of Hashem and speak of the duties imposed upon Yisrael by His covenant, you use for slander and deceit.
(כ) תֵּשֵׁב בְּאָחִיךָ תְדַבֵּר
בְּבֶן אִמְּךָ תִּתֶּן דֹּפִי:
It is not enough for you to be corrupt in your own behavior but you encourage others to sin. You sit in the company of idle scoffers and speak against everyone, including your own kinsman — תֵּשֵׁב בְּאָחִיךָ תְדַבֵּר . You even slander your mother’s son — בְּבֶן אִמְּךָ תִּתֶּן דֹּפִי – and thereby cast aspersions on the virtue of your own mother.
(כא) אֵלֶּה עָשִׂיתָ וְהֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי
You have done these things but still I have kept silent — אֵלֶּה עָשִׂיתָ וְהֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי – and pretended not to see. I wanted to give you the opportunity to realize the error of your ways and do teshuvah.
דִּמִּיתָ הֱיוֹת אֶהְיֶה כָמוֹךָ
אוֹכִיחֲךָ וְאֶעֶרְכָה לְעֵינֶיךָ:
Did you think that I might possibly be like you — דִּמִּיתָ הֱיוֹת אֶהְיֶה כָמוֹךָ , who hide your inner thoughts and private sins from each other and from Me. Perhaps you thought I don’t mind your sins, but there is nothing that I do not know and there is no sin that I overlook. And now I will rebuke you openly and lay out clearly your wicked behavior before your eyes — אוֹכִיחֲךָ וְאֶעֶרְכָה לְעֵינֶיךָ – to show you that I have seen them all!
(כב) בִּינוּ נָא זֹאת שֹׁכְחֵי אֱלוֹ־הַּ
פֶּן אֶטְרֹף וְאֵין מַצִּיל:
Reflect upon this rebuke now — בִּינוּ נָא זֹאת – and change your ways before it is too late, you who forget G-d — שֹׁכְחֵי אֱלוֹ־הַּ – during your daily lives. Heed My warning and do teshuvah before I tear you apart — פֶּן אֶטְרֹף – in My anger with no one to save you — וְאֵין מַצִּיל , for you will have insufficient zechusim (merits) to save you from destruction.
PART 5. CONCLUSION.
(כג) זֹבֵחַ תּוֹדָה יְכַבְּדָנְנִי
וְשָׂם דֶּרֶךְ אַרְאֶנּוּ בְּיֵשַׁע אֱלֹקִים:
The one who brings Me a sacrificial offering of teshuvah and heartfelt confession for his sins, honors Me — זֹבֵחַ תּוֹדָה יְכַבְּדָנְנִי . If he sets for himself an upright way through life — וְשָׂם דֶּרֶךְ , learning My Torah to adhere to its precepts, I will show him — אַרְאֶנּוּ – My salvation, the yeshuah of G-d — בְּיֵשַׁע אֱלֹקִים .
Living the Mizmor
Listed below are some of the lessons that you can draw from this mizmor, as well as some of the thoughts you might have in mind when you say the words of the mizmor as a tefillah, expressing your devotion to Hashem.
Tefillos for Life – Contemplation of Hashem.
[50:1] THE UNIVERSAL G-D. – ה’ דִּבֶּר וַיִּקְרָא אָרֶץ מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ עַד מְבֹאוֹ – “Hashem has spoken, summoning the inhabited world, from the rising of the sun to its setting.” All of mankind without exception is subject to the rule of G-d.
[50:2] THE PRESENCE OF G-D. – מִצִּיּוֹן מִכְלַל יֹפִי אֱלֹקִים הוֹפִיעַ – “Out of Tzion, epitome of beauty, G-d appeared.” Although Hashem pervades the entire universe, His most intense Presence is associated with Yerushalayim.
[50:3] FIRE AND WIND. – אֵשׁ לְפָנָיו תֹּאכֵל וּסְבִיבָיו נִשְׂעֲרָה מְאֹד – “a consuming fire before Him, surrounded with an intense storm-wind.” The unlimited power of Hashem may be symbolized in human terms by the images of fire and wind.
[50:4] HEAVEN AND EARTH. – יִקְרָא אֶל הַשָּׁמַיִם מֵעָל וְאֶל הָאָרֶץ לָדִין עַמּוֹ – “He summons the heavens above and the earth so that He may judge His people.”Hashem summons heaven and earth to bear witness when Yisrael is being judged.
[50:6] RIGHTEOUS JUDGMENT. – וַיַּגִּידוּ שָׁמַיִם צִדְקוֹ כִּי אֱלֹקִים שֹׁפֵט הוּא סֶלָה – “The heavens proclaim His righteousness, for G-d is the Judge.” The heavens which outlast human history can see that the judgment of Hashem is true and fair. Thus, they are called upon to proclaim His righteousness .
Lessons for Life – Your Attitude
[50:8] EMPTY RITES. – לֹא עַל זְבָחֶיךָ אוֹכִיחֶךָ וְעוֹלֹתֶיךָ לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד – “I will not be rebuking you for your sacrifices, for your burnt-offerings [have been] continually before me.” Hashem is not concerned with empty rites, even when they fulfill the requirements. He wants your sincere confession of sin and teshuvah.
[50:14] – זְבַח לֵאלֹקִים תּוֹדָה וְשַׁלֵּם לְעֶלְיוֹן נְדָרֶיךָ – “Offer to God confession. Then, fulfill your vows to the Most High.”
[50:23] – זֹבֵחַ תּוֹדָה יְכַבְּדָנְנִי וְשָׂם דֶּרֶךְ אַרְאֶנּוּ בְּיֵשַׁע אֱלֹקִים – “[The one who] brings a sacrificial offering of confession, honors Me. If he sets [an upright] way, I will show him the yeshuah of G-d.”
[50:16] EMPTY LEARNING. – מַה לְּךָ לְסַפֵּר חֻקָּי וַתִּשָּׂא בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי פִיךָ – “Why do you recite My laws? And carry My covenant in your mouth?” Hashem wants the learning of Torah to be internalized and honored with action.
[50:17] – אַתָּה שָׂנֵאתָ מוּסָר וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ דְּבָרַי אַחֲרֶיךָ – “You have detested mussar. You threw My words behind you.”
The primary sources used in the interpretation of the verses of this mizmor are listed below.
א – בן־רמוך, ספורנו, אלשיך, באר אברהם
ב – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, אלשיך, מצודות
ג – רש”י, אבן עזרא, בן־רמוך
ד – רש”י, בן־רמוך, רשר”ה
ה – רש”י, המאירי, בן־רמוך, ספורנו
ו – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, מצודות, מלבי”ם
ז – רד”ק , המאירי, ספורנו, אלשיך, מצודות
ח – רש”י, אבן עזרא, רד”ק, באר אברהם, מלבי”ם,
ט – רש”י, אבן עזרא, אבן יחייא, באר אברהם,
י – רד”ק, נר לרגלי
יא – רש”י, אבן עזרא, רד”ק, בן־רמוך,
יב – רד”ק, בן־רמוך, ספורנו, אלשיך, מצודות,
יג – בן־רמוך, אבן יחייא
יד – רש”י, רד”ק, המאירי, אלשיך, נר לרגלי
טו – רש”י, רד”ק, אלשיך
טז – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, ספורנו, חכם עמוס
יז – ספורנו, רשר”ה, נר לרגלי
יח – אבן עזרא, בן־רמוך
יט – אבן עזרא, המאירי, באר אברהם, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה
כ – רש”י, בן־רמוך, אבן יחייא, באר אברהם
כא – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, אבן יחייא, מצודות, מלבי”ם, נר לרגלי
כב – רד”ק, אבן יחייא, רשר”ה, נר לרגלי
כג – רש”י, אבן עזרא, מצודות, רשר”ה, נר לרגלי