(א) תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד אֲרוֹמִמְךָ אֱלוֹקַי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַאֲבָרֲכָה שִׁמְךָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:
(1) A song of praise by David. I raise You on high, my G-d, the King. And I bless Your Name forever and ever.
NOTE: For a PDF of this mizmor, please click here. This will enable you to print out the entire text of the article. [Rev. 1]
Mizmor 145 – In Praise of Hashem
Mizmor 145 is the only one of the entire sefer Tehillim that is titled Tehillah L’David, “Song of Praise by David.” It thereby sets a tone of intense praise to Hashem which carries through the last six chapters of Tehillim.
The practice of praising Hashem is an essential component of our daily tefillos (“Pesukei D’zimrah”). By praising Hashem we are re-establishing and confirming the reality of His truth in our minds. Through reaffirming our emunah (belief) in this way we renew our determination to live our lives as He envisioned when He created us.
The key word in each of the 21 verses of Mizmor 145 begins with a corresponding letter of the aleph-beis to show the essential role of praise in the entire Book of Tehillim.
Exploring the Mizmor
In the first part of the mizmor, David expresses his intention of praising Hashem despite his human limitations. In the second part, David explores the ways he can push the limits of the human condition and extend his praise of Hashem as far as it can possibly go. The actual words of praise begin in Part 3.
PART 1. HUMAN LIMITATIONS
David opens the mizmor with words of intense praise but quickly reminds himself that Hashem’s greatness is beyond any measure that a human being can apply.
(א) תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד אֲרוֹמִמְךָ אֱלוֹקַי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַאֲבָרֲכָה שִׁמְךָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד: (ב) בְּכָל יוֹם אֲבָרֲכֶךָּ וַאֲהַלְלָה שִׁמְךָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד: (ג) גָּדוֹל ה’ וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד וְלִגְדֻלָּתוֹ אֵין חֵקֶר:
(1) A song of praise by David. I raise You on high, my G-d, the King. And I bless Your Name forever and ever. (2) I bless You every day. I will praise Your Name forever and ever. (3) Hashem is great and exceedingly praised, but His greatness is beyond investigation.
The alphabetic key word that opens the first verse is “אֲרוֹמִמְךָ“ , which literally means “I will “raise You”. Of course a person cannot presume to elevate Hashem in any absolute sense. But David is saying, I can elevate Hashem as He exists in my thoughts, in my emunah. Thus, the key concept of praise to Hashem is for me to strengthen my emunah by re-establishing the full force of Hashem’s truth in my own mind and by declaring my devotion to that truth. This is what David is doing here.
PART 2. BEYOND THE LIMITS
David now explores the means by which man can go beyond his limitation and extend his efforts at praise of Hashem.
(ד) דּוֹר לְדוֹר יְשַׁבַּח מַעֲשֶׂיךָ וּגְבוּרֹתֶיךָ יַגִּידוּ: (ה) הֲדַר כְּבוֹד הוֹדֶךָ וְדִבְרֵי נִפְלְאוֹתֶיךָ אָשִׂיחָה: (ו) וֶעֱזוּז נוֹרְאֹתֶיךָ יֹאמֵרוּ [וגדולתיך] וּגְדוּלָּתְךָ אֲסַפְּרֶנָּה: (ז) זֵכֶר רַב טוּבְךָ יַבִּיעוּ וְצִדְקָתְךָ יְרַנֵּנוּ:
(4) Generation after generation will praise Your acts. And they will tell of Your mighty wonders. (5) I will meditate upon the splendor of Your glorious majesty and the words [behind] Your deeds of wonder. (6) They will speak of the power of Your awesome deeds, and I will tell of Your ongoing greatness [as it is seen in nature]. (7) They will put into words their [continuing] recollection of Your abundant goodness and they will [gratefully] sing of Your generosity to them.
Tradition (verse 4) – A human being is limited by his short life span but he can transmit the record of Hashem’s wonders received from previous generations. That historical record continues to grow as each generation adds to the store of what mankind has witnessed and experienced.
Layers of Mystery (verse 5) – Man can be inspired to meditate upon the unseen layers of mystery that underlie the transition from the purely spiritual world to the physical world.
Daily Miracles (verse 6) – Man can go beyond the spectacular miracles that Hashem has performed for the benefit of Yisrael and meditate upon the ongoing miracles of nature that are reflected in the daily existence of the world.
Daily Life (verse 7) – Man can show his deep gratitude by actively maintaining a continuing awareness of Hashem’s kindnesses to him and his people.
PART 3. KINDNESS AND LOVE
David’s praise of Hashem begins with a statement of Hashem’s all-inclusive love, a love upon which the entire existence of the world depends. David’ statement here is an extract of the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy, the awesome tefillah that Hashem Himself taught Moshe at a time when it seemed Yisrael’s sin was beyond forgiveness (Shemos 34:6). In that statement we see that Hashem’s love is expressed through His kindness to all His creatures, even those who have sinned.
(ח) חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם ה’ אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וּגְדָל חָסֶד: (ט) טוֹב ה’ לַכֹּל וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו:
(8) Hashem is benevolent and compassionate, slow to anger and great in loving kindness. (9) Hashem is good to all and His compassion is upon all His creatures.
PART 4. MAJESTY AND POWER
David turns directly to Hashem, the King of the universe, and declares the universal recognition of His majestic power.
(י) יוֹדוּךָ ה’ כָּל מַעֲשֶׂיךָ וַחֲסִידֶיךָ יְבָרֲכוּכָה: (יא) כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתְךָ יֹאמֵרוּ וּגְבוּרָתְךָ יְדַבֵּרוּ: (יב) לְהוֹדִיעַ לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם גְּבוּרֹתָיו וּכְבוֹד הֲדַר מַלְכוּתוֹ: (יג) מַלְכוּתְךָ מַלְכוּת כָּל עֹלָמִים וּמֶמְשַׁלְתְּךָ בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר:
(10) All Your creations will render homage to You, Hashem, and Your faithful ones will bless you. (11) They will speak of the sublime glory of Your kingdom and they will tell of Your power. (12) [Their mission is] to make known to the sons of men His mighty acts and the glorious splendor of His kingdom.(13) Your kingdom is a kingdom of all eternities and Your dominion exists through throughout every generation.
PART 5. THE WAYS OF HASHEM
David looks around him and sees how Hashem’s kindness and power are evident in the way He guides and controls the world that He created. By contemplating the ways of Hashem David strengthens his relationship with Him. David is overcome wioth awe, gratitude, and love as he reflects upon the existence that Hashem has created and continues to re-create.
(יד) סוֹמֵךְ ה’ לְכָל הַנֹּפְלִים וְזוֹקֵף לְכָל הַכְּפוּפִים: (טו) עֵינֵי כֹל אֵלֶיךָ יְשַׂבֵּרוּ וְאַתָּה נוֹתֵן לָהֶם אֶת אָכְלָם בְּעִתּוֹ: (טז) פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת יָדֶךָ וּמַשְׂבִּיעַ לְכָל חַי רָצוֹן:
(14) Hashem [offers His hand] to prop up all who have fallen. He helps all who are bent over to stand up straight. (15) The eyes of all look to You expectantly for sustenance and You give them their food in its proper time. (16) You open Your hand and satisfy every living thing with desire.
(יז) צַדִּיק ה’ בְּכָל דְּרָכָיו וְחָסִיד בְּכָל מַעֲשָׂיו: (יח) קָרוֹב ה’ לְכָל קֹרְאָיו לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָאֻהוּ בֶאֱמֶת: (יט) רְצוֹן יְרֵאָיו יַעֲשֶׂה וְאֶת שַׁוְעָתָם יִשְׁמַע וְיוֹשִׁיעֵם: (כ) שׁוֹמֵר ה’ אֶת כָּל אֹהֲבָיו וְאֵת כָּל הָרְשָׁעִים יַשְׁמִיד:
(17) Hashem is benevolent in all His ways and He is generous in all his acts. (18) Hashem is close to all who call upon Him, to all who call upon Him with sincerity. (19) He will fulfill the desires of those who fear Him. He will hear their cry and He will save them. (20) Hashgem protects all those who love Him, but all the wicked He will destroy.
PART 6. CONCLUSION
David concludes the mizmor with a tefillah that he be given the privilege of continuing to participate in the praise of Hashem for all time, into the next world.
(כא) תְּהִלַּת ה’ יְדַבֶּר פִּי וִיבָרֵךְ כָּל בָּשָׂר שֵׁם קָדְשׁוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:
(21) Let my mouth declare the praise of Hashem; let all flesh bless His holy Name forever and ever.
Learning the Mizmor
PART 1. HUMAN LIMITATIONS
(א) תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד
This is a song of intense personal praise of Hashem by David — תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד .
אֲרוֹמִמְךָ אֱלוֹקַי הַמֶּלֶךְ
With these words I raise on high my devotion to You — אֲרוֹמִמְךָ – from the depths of my heart. Although You are above all forms of praise that I can express, I renew my personal commitment to You as my G-d — אֱלוֹקַי – and as the only King of the universe — הַמֶּלֶךְ .
וַאֲבָרֲכָה שִׁמְךָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:
And in my gratitude for the continuing flow of Your kindness, I desperately want to bless Your Name — וַאֲבָרֲכָה שִׁמְךָ – which represents my limited perception of that flow of goodness, but which exists forever and ever — לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד .
(ב) בְּכָל יוֹם אֲבָרֲכֶךָּ
וַאֲהַלְלָה שִׁמְךָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:
Because your kindnesses are renewed every day — בְּכָל יוֹם , I bless You — אֲבָרֲכֶךָּ again in my gratitude with each passing day. And as a result I will continually praise Your Name to all mankind in a song of praise that extends through all generations forever and ever — וַאֲהַלְלָה שִׁמְךָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד .
(ג) גָּדוֹל ה’ וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד
וְלִגְדֻלָּתוֹ אֵין חֵקֶר:
Men can say that Hashem is great — גָּדוֹל ה’ , but even if He is exceedingly praised — וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד – by men, this greatness is a relative term, since it depends on what is being measured. In truth His greatness is beyond measure or investigation — וְלִגְדֻלָּתוֹ אֵין חֵקֶר . Whatever we might be capable of proclaiming about Him is only an infinitely small part of His true greatness.
PART 2. BEYOND THE LIMITS
(ד) דּוֹר לְדוֹר יְשַׁבַּח מַעֲשֶׂיךָ
David cries out to Hashem: Mankind’s ability to praise You is limited to those of Your qualities that You have enabled us to perceive. We can only relate to what You have revealed, to the evidence before our eyes, but not to the inner workings of the Divine Spirit which have caused what we see and hear.
Nevertheless, the praise that people utter will be renewed and reinforced throughout human history. For generation after generation — דּוֹר לְדוֹר – will praise Your actions — יְשַׁבַּח מַעֲשֶׂיךָ , each one adding the knowledge of the wonders it has observed. And so they will tell more of Your mighty wonders — וּגְבוּרֹתֶיךָ יַגִּידוּ , including what they have heard from previous generations as well as those which they themselves have experienced.
(ה) הֲדַר כְּבוֹד הוֹדֶךָ
וְדִבְרֵי נִפְלְאוֹתֶיךָ אָשִׂיחָה:
As for me, I am also prevented from exploring the depths of Your unseen mysteries Nevertheless, I want to speak of the phenomenal beauty that exists in the many layers with which You have enveloped the transition from the abstract spiritual world to the physical, material world. I know that in these unseen layers there shines the splendor of Your glorious majesty — הֲדַר כְּבוֹד הוֹדֶךָ . And so, I will confidently speak of this beauty at the same time that I meditate upon the words that teach the lessons inherent in Your deeds of wonder — וְדִבְרֵי נִפְלְאוֹתֶיךָ אָשִׂיחָה .
(ו) וֶעֱזוּז נוֹרְאֹתֶיךָ יֹאמֵרוּ
[וגדולתיך] וּגְדוּלָּתְךָ אֲסַפְּרֶנָּה:
And they will speak enthusiastically of the power of Your awesome deeds — וֶעֱזוּז נוֹרְאֹתֶיךָ יֹאמֵרוּ , in which You performed wonders by spectacularly overriding the laws of nature. But I want to extend this praise to the miracles of daily life, which people tend to take for granted. And so I will tell of Your ongoing greatness — וּגְדוּלָּתְךָ אֲסַפְּרֶנָּה , which is apparent only after patient meditation.
(ז) זֵכֶר רַב טוּבְךָ יַבִּיעוּ
Through their continuing recollection — זֵכֶר – of Your abundant goodness — רַב טוּבְךָ – they will experience an overwhelming sense of gratitude to You. The emotion will be so strong that their feelings will feel overflow into speech and they will express them verbally — יַבִּיעוּ .
As they think of Your kindnesses to them as a community and as as individuals, both in the present and in generations past they will be inspired to sing of Your generosity — וְצִדְקָתְךָ יְרַנֵּנוּ – in treating them far better than they deserve.
PART 3. KINDNESS AND LOVE
(ח) חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם ה’
Hashem is benevolent and compassionate — חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם ה’ , not just from time to time, for these quality are inherent in Him and in the world that He has created. In His benevolence Hashem even bestows upon His creatures the quality which they need to find favor in His eyes. That quality of charm ( חֵן ) is like the charm of an infant that motivates people to treat it well. And because of it, Hashem favors His creatures, satisfying their needs as an unearned gift ( מַתְּנַת חִנָם ).
In His compassionate love Hashem protects people from danger, not only if they are worthy, but even if they have sinned against Him. This may be compared to a mother who has compassion upon her child. In her love she excuses the child even when he has behaved badly.
Even when sinners neglect the opportunity to change their ways, Hashem is slow to anger — אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם . Because He loves them, He gives them time to think about their mistakes and return to the right path. And He demonstrates the greatness of His love with His bountiful kindness — וּגְדָל חָסֶד . His love for people is unlimited, even if they are unworthy, and even if they continue to repeat their sin. He waits for them hoping that ultimately they will return His love, and so He has constructed the world as a means for their happiness. In fact, all the attributes of Hashem are expressions of his kindness, which originates in love.
(ט) טוֹב ה’ לַכֹּל
וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו:
Hashem is good to all — טוֹב ה’ לַכֹּל – that He has created, not just to a favored few. And even when they are unaware of the wonders He performs for their benefit His compassion is upon all His creatures — וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו , upon everything that He has brought into being.
Even though individual plants and animals may be consumed by higher order creatures, Hashem protects the continuity of each species. We, in turn, are called upon to emulate His ways, taking care to protect and preserve everything that He has created. Although we are permitted to make constructive use of the world’s bounty, we are forbidden to engage in mindless destruction.
PART 4. MAJESTY AND POWER
(י) יוֹדוּךָ ה’ כָּל מַעֲשֶׂיךָ
All Your creations will render homage to You, Hashem — יוֹדוּךָ ה’ כָּל מַעֲשֶׂיךָ , each in its own way. Creatures without independent intelligence will render homage simply by acting as You have made them and fulfilling Your plan. Men with intelligence will reflect upon your wonders and appreciate Your unlimited wisdom. And Your devoted ones will bless you — וַחֲסִידֶיךָ יְבָרֲכוּכָה – so as to draw forth Your abundant goodness by voluntarily serving You and advancing the fulfillment of Your will.
(יא) כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתְךָ יֹאמֵרוּ
In so doing, they will speak of the sublime glory of Your kingdom — כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתְךָ יֹאמֵרוּ , explaining that You are far removed from any ordinary concepts of royalty that man can conceive. It is a glory that it is revealed in the infinity variety of kindnesses that You provide to all creatures. And they will tell of Your power — וּגְבוּרָתְךָ יְדַבֵּרוּ , which maintains the ongoing existence and functioning of the entire universe. For it is only Your truly devoted ones, who serve You consciously and with voluntary devotion that can have a true understanding and concept of this dominion which unites the entire universe into one single Kingdom over which You reign supreme.
(יב) לְהוֹדִיעַ לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם גְּבוּרֹתָיו
וּכְבוֹד הֲדַר מַלְכוּתוֹ:
It is not enough that Your devoted servants reflect upon Your glory and Your power. They also have a mission to communicate this sublime wisdom to all men, to the extent that human beings are able to grasp it. Their duty is to make this wisdom known to all the sons of men, beginning with the overwhelming, earth-shaking spectacle of His mighty acts — לְהוֹדִיעַ לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם גְּבוּרֹתָיו , and extending into the inspiring beauty and glorious splendor of His kingdom — וּכְבוֹד הֲדַר מַלְכוּתוֹ . Men should have a conception of the bliss inherent in knowing that every human being, even with his own tiny existence and striving, is also a part of the kingdom of this One Ruler, and of the joy it is to take every breath of one’s life in the faithful service of Hashem.
(יג) מַלְכוּתְךָ מַלְכוּת כָּל עֹלָמִים
וּמֶמְשַׁלְתְּךָ בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר:
Any kingdom of man is only an allegory to the absolute kingdom, which is Your existence. Not only is Your kingdom — מַלְכוּתְךָ – infinite in variety and extent. It is a kingdom — מַלְכוּת – that is unlimited in time. It never comes to an end for it spans all eternities — כָּל עֹלָמִים , including those measures of time that man can visualize and those that are beyond his imagination. And thus Your dominion rules throughout every generation of mankind — וּמֶמְשַׁלְתְּךָ בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר . Each generation is shown the wonders that are appropriate to it, whether it is a generation of the righteous or a generation of the wicked.
PART 5. THE WAYS OF HASHEM
(יד) סוֹמֵךְ ה’ לְכָל הַנֹּפְלִים
וְזוֹקֵף לְכָל הַכְּפוּפִים:
Hashem’s compassion is accessible to all men. It is not limited to a select few. Hashem offers His hand to prop up all those who have fallen — סוֹמֵךְ ה’ לְכָל הַנֹּפְלִים – on bad times for whatever reason, so that they are kept from falling further. But he does not leave them there. He helps all those who are bent over with suffering so that they can stand up straight again — וְזוֹקֵף לְכָל הַכְּפוּפִים .
(טו) עֵינֵי כֹל אֵלֶיךָ יְשַׂבֵּרוּ
וְאַתָּה נוֹתֵן לָהֶם אֶת אָכְלָם בְּעִתּוֹ:
Hashem, through Your wisdom and compassion You have created a world in which all living things can seek and find the sustenance best suited to their needs. In effect, the eyes of all creatures look to You expectantly for sustenance — עֵינֵי כֹל אֵלֶיךָ יְשַׂבֵּרוּ – and You give them their food in its proper time — וְאַתָּה נוֹתֵן לָהֶם אֶת אָכְלָם בְּעִתּוֹ . The type of food that You provide varies with the season and each type of creature has come to expect the appropriate food at each time of the year. But no matter how much effort each creature expends in acquiring its particular food, it is ultimately a gift from You.
Furthermore, You have placed human beings into Your universal world order so that even if a person doesn’t know from where his sustenance will appear, he should pray to You to provide it. You will surely respond to his tefillah and he can be sure that his sustenance will be there in the right measure when he needs it.
(טז) פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת יָדֶךָ
וּמַשְׂבִּיעַ לְכָל חַי רָצוֹן:
You open Your hand with Your generosity — פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת יָדֶךָ , and satisfy every living thing — וּמַשְׂבִּיעַ לְכָל חַי – by providing it with enough food and with a level and a quality of desire — וּמַשְׂבִּיעַ לְכָל חַי רָצוֹן , that is appropriate for healthy and enjoyable nourishment. In Your kindness, You make the food look and smell good to each creature so that not only is the creature nourished, it experiences pleasure in consuming what You have provideed.
(יז) צַדִּיק ה’ בְּכָל דְּרָכָיו
Hashem is benevolent in all his ways — צַדִּיק ה’ בְּכָל דְּרָכָיו , that is, in all the general principles by which He governs the world. Even when it seems to us that a righteous person is being harshly treated, we should know that this treatment is serving a positive purpose for that individual. Furthermore, it is part of a larger plan, a plan that is totally benevolent.
וְחָסִיד בְּכָל מַעֲשָׂיו:
And Hashem is not only benevolent in his ways, He is generous in all his specific acts — וְחָסִיד בְּכָל מַעֲשָׂיו , that are needed to implement the general principles. Every aspect of the world brings pleasure and gratrification to the creatures that dwell in it.
(יח) קָרוֹב ה’ לְכָל קֹרְאָיו
לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָאֻהוּ בֶאֱמֶת:
Hashem listens to every tefillah because He is close to all who call upon Him — קָרוֹב ה’ לְכָל קֹרְאָיו , which means to say, He is close to all who call upon Him with sincerity — לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָאֻהוּ בֶאֱמֶת . They come to Him in tefillah with a humble wish to serve Him rather than a selfish desire to satisfy their own wants.
(יט) רְצוֹן יְרֵאָיו יַעֲשֶׂה
וְאֶת שַׁוְעָתָם יִשְׁמַע וְיוֹשִׁיעֵם:
He will fulfil the desire of those who fear Him — רְצוֹן יְרֵאָיו יַעֲשֶׂה – even before they ask it of Him because their desire is already consistent with what Hashem wants for them. And whenever there is calamity in the world and they are crying out in pain, He will come to their aid without the need for them to formulate specific pleas. He will hear their cry — וְאֶת שַׁוְעָתָם יִשְׁמַע – and He will save them — וְיוֹשִׁיעֵם .
(כ) שׁוֹמֵר ה’ אֶת כָּל אֹהֲבָיו
וְאֵת כָּל הָרְשָׁעִים יַשְׁמִיד:
And when calamity befalls the world in punishment for its sins, those who fear Hashem will be saved, but those who love Him will be protected so that they escape the calmity completely. Hashem protects all those who love him — שׁוֹמֵר ה’ אֶת כָּל אֹהֲבָיו so that tragedy does not befall them at all. And in that future time, there will be no room for the wicked. Thus, he will destroy all the wicked — וְאֵת כָּל הָרְשָׁעִים יַשְׁמִיד .
PART 6. CONCLUSION
(כא) תְּהִלַּת ה’ יְדַבֶּר פִּי
וִיבָרֵךְ כָּל בָּשָׂר שֵׁם קָדְשׁוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:
Let my mouth declare the praise of Hashem’s mighty acts — תְּהִלַּת ה’ יְדַבֶּר פִּי in the presence of all mankind, even beyond my present life on earth. And even if the rest of mankind is not yet familiar with the details of Hashem’s acts, let all flesh bless His holy Name — וִיבָרֵךְ כָּל בָּשָׂר שֵׁם קָדְשׁוֹ , which symbolizes all of his attributes, and may they do so for ever and ever — לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד .
The primary sources used in the interpretation of the verses of this mizmor are listed below.
א – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, מלבי”ם, הללי נפשי
ב – מצודות, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה
ג – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, רשר”ה
ד – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, המאירי, בן־רמוך, אלשיך,מלבי”ם
ה – בן־רמוך, אלשיך, רשר”ה
ו – אבן עזרא, הללי נפשי,
ז – בן־רמוך, הללי נפשי
ח – רד”ק, המאירי, נר לרגלי, הללי נפשי
ט – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, המאירי, רשר”ה, הללי נפשי
י – בן־רמוך, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה, הללי נפשי
יא – אבן עזרא, בן־רמוך, רשר”ה, הללי נפשי
יב – רד”ק, אלשיך, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה, הללי נפשי
יג – אבן עזרא, בן־רמוך, רשר”ה, הללי נפשי
יד – רש”י, אבן עזרא, רד”ק, המאירי
טו – רד”ק, רשר”ה, נר לרגלי, הללי נפשי
טז – אבן עזרא, רד”ק דעת סופרים, נר לרגלי, הללי נפשי
יז – אבן עזרא, אלשיך, מלבי”ם, הללי נפשי
יח – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, המאירי, רשר”ה
יט – רד”ק, מלבי”ם, נר לרגלי
כ – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, בן־רמוך
כא – רד”ק, בן־רמוך, מצודות, מלבי”ם