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Mizmor 045 – A Royal Marriage
(א) לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שֹׁשַׁנִּים לִבְנֵי קֹרַח, מַשְׂכִּיל שִׁיר יְדִידֹת:
(1) For the musician, on the [instrument called] shoshanim, by the sons of Korach, a thought-provoking song of loving friendship.
NOTE: For a PDF of this mizmor, please click here. This will enable you to print out the entire text of the article. [Rev 5]
Key Concepts of Mizmor 045 – A Royal Marriage
The mizmor is a song of chizuk (encouragement) and guidance for a Jewish man and woman on their wedding day. In the mizmor, the chassan (bridegroom) is referred to as a king and the kallah (bride) is his queen. The singer builds on the royal analogy, encouraging the young couple to live up to the ideal image of a noble king who stands up for the truth and a virtuous queen who reveals her true glory in middos and good works rather than in public display.
Exploring the Mizmor
PART 1. INTRODUCTION. the singer describes how he was moved to compose the mizmor.
(א) לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שֹׁשַׁנִּים לִבְנֵי קֹרַח, מַשְׂכִּיל שִׁיר יְדִידֹת: (ב) רָחַשׁ לִבִּי דָּבָר טוֹב, אֹמֵר אָנִי מַעֲשַׂי לְמֶלֶךְ, לְשׁוֹנִי עֵט סוֹפֵר מָהִיר:
(1) For the musician, on the [instrument called] shoshanim, by the sons of Korach, a thought-provoking song of loving friendship. (2) My heart is moved by a worthwhile thought. I recite my compositions [that are fitting] for a king. My tongue is [like the] pen of a skillful scribe.
PART 2. THE KING. The singer addresses the king, praising him for his noble qualities and great potential. The king has not yet had the opportunity to prove himself, but the singer encourages him to remain loyal to his ideals despite the many challenges ahead. Furthermore, although there are many young women who would like to be chosen as his queen, the singer tells him that only one special person will have the opportunity to stand at his side.
(ג) יָפְיָפִיתָ מִבְּנֵי אָדָם הוּצַק חֵן בְּשִׂפְתוֹתֶיךָ עַל כֵּן בֵּרַכְךָ אֱלֹקִים לְעוֹלָם: (ד) חֲגוֹר חַרְבְּךָ עַל יָרֵךְ גִּבּוֹר הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ: (ה) וַהֲדָרְךָ צְלַח רְכַב עַל דְּבַר אֱמֶת וְעַנְוָה צֶדֶק וְתוֹרְךָ נוֹרָאוֹת יְמִינֶךָ: (ו) חִצֶּיךָ שְׁנוּנִים עַמִּים תַּחְתֶּיךָ יִפְּלוּ בְּלֵב אוֹיְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
(3) [Speaking to the young king:] You are striking [in both appearance and intelligence, far more so] than other men. Graciousness is poured forth in [the words of] your lips. Therefore, G-d has blessed you throughout your life. (4) Gird your sword upon [your] thigh, O mighty warrior. [Victory for Torah and truth will be] your triumph and your glory. (5) The glory of your success will be riding upon truth. Righteous humility at your right hand, will teach you awesome things. (6) Your arrows [of truth] are sharpened; nations will fall beneath you. [Your arrows] will fall into the heart of the foes of [Hashem,] the King.
(ז) כִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹקִים עוֹלָם וָעֶד שֵׁבֶט מִישֹׁר שֵׁבֶט מַלְכוּתֶךָ: (ח) אָהַבְתָּ צֶּדֶק וַתִּשְׂנָא רֶשַׁע עַל כֵּן מְשָׁחֲךָ אֱלֹקִים אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן מֵחֲבֵרֶיךָ: (ט) מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת קְצִיעוֹת כָּל בִּגְדֹתֶיךָ מִן הֵיכְלֵי שֵׁן מִנִּי שִׂמְּחוּךָ: (י) בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים בִּיקְּרוֹתֶיךָ נִצְּבָה שֵׁגַל לִימִינְךָ בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר:
(7) Your throne is [the truth that comes from the throne] of G-d, which is eternal. A scepter of integrity is the scepter of your kingdom. (8) You love righteousness and hate wickedness. Therefore , G-d is your G-d, He has anointed you [with the] oil of joy, [the joy that you receive] from [all] your friends. (9) [The fragrance of] myrrh, aloes, and cassia, [pervades] all your garments. [Greater] than ivory palaces are the varieties of [your] gladness. (10) Daughters of kings call on you, [but you have already chosen] a queen, standing at your right hand in the golden jewelry of Ophir.
PART 3. THE QUEEN. The singer then turns to the queen, who is beautiful in every way. She has grown up in a wealthy home and takes pride in the nobility of her heritage. Her first challenge will be to learn to start over, building a family in circumstances that are much more modest than what she was accustomed to. The singer tells her not to look for gratification in the false pretensions of society, but in the sheltered warmth of her home.
(יא) שִׁמְעִי בַת וּרְאִי וְהַטִּי אָזְנֵךְ וְשִׁכְחִי עַמֵּךְ וּבֵית אָבִיךְ: (יב) וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ כִּי הוּא אֲדֹנַיִךְ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִי לוֹ: (יג) וּבַת צֹר בְּמִנְחָה פָּנַיִךְ יְחַלּוּ עֲשִׁירֵי עָם: (יד) כָּל כְּבוּדָּה בַת מֶלֶךְ פְּנִימָה מִמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת זָהָב לְבוּשָׁהּ:
(11) Hear, O daughter, and see. Incline your ear. Forget your people and your father’s house. (12) The king will desire your [physical and spiritual] beauty for he is your [only] master. Show deference to him. (13) [Don’t be seduced by] the power of temptation bearing a gift [of worldly luxury], sought by the richest of the nation. (14) The entire glory of the princess is within [her home]. Her garment [of chesed and middos] is made with golden settings.
PART 4. THE MARRIAGE. The singer now turns back to the king and encourages him to rejoice in the wedding celebrations and to appreciate the good wishes of all who pay their respects. The singer then concludes with a special blessing to the young couple, that they may be granted virtuous offspring to carry on the mission of the Jewish people.
(טו) לִרְקָמוֹת תּוּבַל לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּתוּלוֹת אַחֲרֶיהָ רֵעוֹתֶיהָ מוּבָאוֹת לָךְ: (טז) תּוּבַלְנָה בִּשְׂמָחֹת וָגִיל תְּבֹאֶינָה בְּהֵיכַל מֶלֶךְ: (יז) תַּחַת אֲבֹתֶיךָ יִהְיוּ בָנֶיךָ תְּשִׁיתֵמוֹ לְשָׂרִים בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ: (יח) אַזְכִּירָה שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל דֹּר וָדֹר עַל כֵּן עַמִּים יְהוֹדֻךָ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד:
(15) She will be led to the king in embroidered wedding apparel. Young maidens following in her train are her good friends, who have been brought for your sake, [O king]. (16) They have been brought with gladness and joy, entering the palace of the king. (17) May your sons be [worthy of stepping] into the place of your fathers. Set them as leaders in all the land. (18) I will make your name to be remembered in all generations. Therefore, all the [tribes of Yisrael] will acknowledge you forever and ever.
Additional Thoughts
This mizmor is presented in the form of a mashal (allegorical metaphor), although the king that it portrays resembles a particular historical figure such as Shlomo Hamelech. However, the analogy is not exact and the meforshim have widely differing opinions as to how the mizmor can best be understood. Thus, the king might be seen as Avraham Avinu, David Hamelech, or even the future Mashiach. Others see the king and queen as symbolic personalities representing Hashem and Yisrael, talmidei chachamim and the rest of the nation, or the neshamah of a person and his body.
We can reasonably assume that when David incorporated this mizmor in Sefer Tehillim he was aware of the many possible interpretations that would be introduced over the centuries. If that is so, David may have intended each individual who recites Tehillim today to have in mind the particular perush that is most meaningful for him.
With that idea in mind an interpretation based on the writings of the Alshich and Rav S. R. Hirsch has been chosen for the NAFSHI project. They see this as a wedding song, celebrating the coming together of a virtuous man and his bride. The wedding song teaches the young couple some important lessons about the challenges they will face in building a new home that will form an essential link in the chain of Jewish history.
Learning the Mizmor
(א) לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שֹׁשַׁנִּים
This mizmor was prepared for the musician — לַמְנַצֵּחַ  who will perform it on the instrument called shoshanim — עַל שֹׁשַׁנִּים . The shoshanim was a unique musical instrument shaped like a rose.
לִבְנֵי קֹרַח מַשְׂכִּיל 
שִׁיר יְדִידֹת:
The mizmor was composed by the sons of Korach — לִבְנֵי קֹרַח  as a thought-provoking song of loving friendship — מַשְׂכִּיל שִׁיר יְדִידֹת  between the singer and the subjects of the song.
(ב) רָחַשׁ לִבִּי דָּבָר טוֹב 
אֹמֵר אָנִי מַעֲשַׂי לְמֶלֶךְ 
לְשׁוֹנִי עֵט סוֹפֵר מָהִיר:
My heart is moved by a worthwhile thought — רָחַשׁ לִבִּי דָּבָר טוֹב  although I have not yet uttered it. And so I shall now recite my poetic compositions that are fitting for a king — אֹמֵר אָנִי מַעֲשַׂי לְמֶלֶךְ . I will make my tongue — לְשׁוֹנִי  express my thoughts succinctly like the pen of a skillful scribe — עֵט סוֹפֵר מָהִיר – who doesn’t waste words. Just as the scribe is careful with the written word because many will read it, so will I choose my spoken words carefully.
(ג) יָפְיָפִיתָ מִבְּנֵי אָדָם 
הוּצַק חֵן בְּשִׂפְתוֹתֶיךָ 
עַל כֵּן בֵּרַכְךָ אֱלֹקִים לְעוֹלָם:
[Speaking to the young king:] You are far more striking in appearance and intelligence, than other men — יָפְיָפִיתָ מִבְּנֵי אָדָם . Graciousness is poured forth in the words of Torah from your lips — הוּצַק חֵן בְּשִׂפְתוֹתֶיךָ Therefore — עַל כֵּן , from these signs of nobility I conclude that G-d has blessed you  בֵּרַכְךָ אֱלֹקִים – to be an inspiration to others throughout your life  לְעוֹלָם .
(ד) חֲגוֹר חַרְבְּךָ עַל יָרֵךְ 
גִּבּוֹר הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ:
Gird your sword of Torah learning upon your thigh — חֲגוֹר חַרְבְּךָ עַל יָרֵךְ  and prepare yourself for the challenges ahead. You will need to take vigorous action against your opponents, like a brave soldier. O mighty warrior  גִּבּוֹר , you have the potential to overcome all opposition to the Torah and truth. That victory will be your triumph and your glory — הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ .
(ה) וַהֲדָרְךָ צְלַח רְכַב
עַל דְּבַר אֱמֶת
You will find your glory — וַהֲדָרְךָ , but not by riding into battle upon a powerful steed with the masses cheering you on. Rather, you will gain success — צְלַח  by riding  רְכַב  forth upon your commitment to truth — עַל דְּבַר אֱמֶת  and integrity.
וְעַנְוָה צֶדֶק 
וְתוֹרְךָ נוֹרָאוֹת יְמִינֶךָ:
You will act with righteous humility — וְעַנְוָה צֶדֶק , rejecting deception, falsehood, and pride. And if you let your conscience be your right hand, it will teach you awesome things — וְתוֹרְךָ נוֹרָאוֹת יְמִינֶךָ . You will find out that although truth and humility often seem at a disadvantage in this world, they are backed by the might of Hashem and will always be victorious in the end.
(ו) חִצֶּיךָ שְׁנוּנִים 
עַמִּים תַּחְתֶּיךָ יִפְּלוּ
Your well-reasoned responses to the enemies of truth will be like sharpened arrows  חִצֶּיךָ שְׁנוּנִים  and so your adversaries among the nations will fall beneath you — עַמִּים תַּחְתֶּיךָ יִפְּלוּ . They will be forced to acknowledge the validity of your truth.
[יִפְּלוּ] בְּלֵב אוֹיְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
The accuracy of your assertions will create confusion in their midst. In effect, your arrows will fall into the heart of the foes of Hashem, the King — יִפְּלוּ בְּלֵב אוֹיְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ .
(ז) כִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹקִים עוֹלָם וָעֶד 
שֵׁבֶט מִישֹׁר שֵׁבֶט מַלְכוּתֶךָ:
Your throne is the truth that comes from the throne of G-d — כִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹקִים , which is eternal — עוֹלָם וָעֶד . A scepter of integrity  שֵׁבֶט מִישֹׁר  is the scepter by which you rule your kingdom — שֵׁבֶט מַלְכוּתֶךָ  of honest dealings.
(ח) אָהַבְתָּ צֶּדֶק וַתִּשְׂנָא רֶשַׁע
Your noble actions in the defense of truth and the sincere teshuvah that you have done in preparation for wedded life have had a wonderful effect on your own middos. As a result you have learned to love the righteousness — אָהַבְתָּ צֶּדֶק of truth and hate the wickedness — וַתִּשְׂנָא רֶשַׁע  of falsehood.
עַל כֵּן מְשָׁחֲךָ אֱלֹקִים אֱלֹקֶיךָ 
שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן מֵחֲבֵרֶיךָ:
Therefore — עַל כֵּן , the true G-d is your G-d — אֱלֹקִים אֱלֹקֶיךָ  and He will be loyal to you as you are loyal to Him. He has chosen you to have the title king at this time and so He has anointed you — מְשָׁחֲךָ  with the oil of joy  שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן , the joy that you receive from all your friends  מֵחֲבֵרֶיךָ , who rejoice to see your happiness.
(ט) מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת קְצִיעוֹת 
כָּל בִּגְדֹתֶיךָ
Your middos and good deeds are like sweet smelling clothing that enhances your physical body. It is as though the fragrance of myrrh, aloes, and cassia, pervades all your garments — מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת קְצִיעוֹת כָּל בִּגְדֹתֶיךָ .
מִן הֵיכְלֵי שֵׁן 
מִנִּי שִׂמְּחוּךָ:
Greater than ivory palaces — מִן הֵיכְלֵי שֵׁן  which enhance the serenity of a king, are the varieties of gladness — מִנִּי שִׂמְּחוּךָ  that you shall have.
(י) בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים בִּיקְּרוֹתֶיךָ 
נִצְּבָה שֵׁגַל לִימִינְךָ בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר:
Daughters of kings call on you — בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים בִּיקְּרוֹתֶיךָ , hoping to be taken as your wife, but you have already chosen a queen. She stands at your right hand — נִצְּבָה שֵׁגַל לִימִינְךָ . Your chosen one is as pleasing to you as though adorned in the golden jewelry of Ophir — בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר , which is known to be superior to any other.
(יא) שִׁמְעִי בַת וּרְאִי 
וְהַטִּי אָזְנֵךְ
Hear, O daughter  שִׁמְעִי בַת ; think about what I shall now tell you. Look around you and see — וּרְאִי  the reality of life. Don’t be confused by youthful fantasies. Incline your ear — וְהַטִּי אָזְנֵךְ  and prepare to receive the wisdom of those who have preceded you.
וְשִׁכְחִי עַמֵּךְ וּבֵית אָבִיךְ:
You are justifiably proud of the well-established home in which you were raised, but you are now about to build a new home. This is going to take some sacrifice on your part, even though it will be ultimately rewarding. Don’t expect the comforts you have enjoyed up to now to continue undiminished. Don’t expect your young husband to be able to compete in wealth and wisdom with your father. Forget your people and your father’s house — וְשִׁכְחִי עַמֵּךְ וּבֵית אָבִיךְ  and don’t be constantly comparing life in your new home to what went before.
(יב) וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ 
כִּי הוּא אֲדֹנַיִךְ 
וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִי לוֹ:
If you approach marriage with modesty and humility, then your new husband will be able to fill his role as the king and you will be his queen, even though your new home is established in modest circumstances. The king will desire your beauty — וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ  in all its physical and spiritual aspects, for he — כִּי הוּא  is grateful that in your eyes he is your only master  אֲדֹנַיִךְ . It will be his responsibility to be the head of your family, so give him respect. Show deference and bow to him — וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִי לוֹ  in your behavior and he will find the courage to carry out his mission in life.
(יג) וּבַת צֹר בְּמִנְחָה
פָּנַיִךְ יְחַלּוּ עֲשִׁירֵי עָם:
But if you are dissatisfied with your lot, then in a foolish desire for wealth and social status you could be seduced by the power of temptation — וּבַת צֹר bearing a treacherous gift  בְּמִנְחָה . Don’t be misled by that gift, even if it involves your favor being sought by the richest of the nation  פָּנַיִךְ יְחַלּוּ עֲשִׁירֵי עָם .
(יד) כָּל כְּבוּדָּה בַת מֶלֶךְ פְּנִימָה 
מִמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת זָהָב לְבוּשָׁהּ:
Never forget that your true fulfillment is not to be found in the false sophistication of society or material wealth. The entire glory of the princess is within her home — כָּל כְּבוּדָּה בַת מֶלֶךְ פְּנִימָה . Her garment of chesed and middos is made with golden settings — מִמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת זָהָב לְבוּשָׁהּ  that are far more valuable than anything the outside world has to offer.
(טו) לִרְקָמוֹת תּוּבַל לַמֶּלֶךְ
Your queen does not need finery to satisfy her vanity, but when you stand under the wedding canopy she will be led to the king in the splendor of her embroidered wedding apparel  לִרְקָמוֹת תּוּבַל לַמֶּלֶךְ .
בְּתוּלוֹת אַחֲרֶיהָ 
רֵעוֹתֶיהָ מוּבָאוֹת לָךְ:
To celebrate this important event in her life she will be accompanied by young maidens following in her train — בְּתוּלוֹת אַחֲרֶיהָ . Her good friends have been brought to the wedding hall for your sake — רֵעוֹתֶיהָ מוּבָאוֹת לָךְ  so that they can show their devotion to your queen and ultimately help you appreciate the treasure you are about to acquire.
(טז) תּוּבַלְנָה בִּשְׂמָחֹת וָגִיל 
תְּבֹאֶינָה בְּהֵיכַל מֶלֶךְ:
They have been brought with gladness and joy — תּוּבַלְנָה בִּשְׂמָחֹת וָגִיל ; and so they happily enter  תְּבֹאֶינָה  the wedding hall which has become the palace of the king — בְּהֵיכַל מֶלֶךְ .
(יז) תַּחַת אֲבֹתֶיךָ יִהְיוּ בָנֶיךָ
It is my blessing to you that you will have the joy of seeing your own parents live again in your children. May your sons be worthy of stepping into the place of your fathers — תַּחַת אֲבֹתֶיךָ יִהְיוּ בָנֶיךָ .
תְּשִׁיתֵמוֹ לְשָׂרִים בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ:
May you fulfill your own destiny of guiding them and helping them become established in life. As soon as they are ready, give them responsibility and set them — תְּשִׁיתֵמוֹ  where they can function as leaders in all the land  לְשָׂרִים בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ .
(יח) אַזְכִּירָה שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל דֹּר וָדֹר 
עַל כֵּן עַמִּים יְהוֹדֻךָ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד:
I have devoted this mizmor to you because you have taken on the momentous responsibility of building a Jewish home. Together with your queen you are forming an essential link in the chain that stretches back to Har Sinai. Through this mizmor I will make your name a symbol of virtue that is remembered in all generations — אַזְכִּירָה שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל דֹּר וָדֹר . Therefore, all the tribes of Yisrael will acknowledge you forever and ever — עַל כֵּן עַמִּים יְהוֹדֻךָ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד .
Living the Mizmor
Listed below are some of the lessons that you can draw from this mizmor, as well as some of the thoughts you might have in mind when you say the words of the mizmor as a tefillah, expressing your devotion to Hashem.
Lessons for Life – Your Behavior.
[45:2] SPEECH CONTROL. – לְשׁוֹנִי עֵט סוֹפֵר מָהִיר – “My tongue is [like the] pen of a skillful scribe.” When you speak, choose your words carefully to say what you really mean, as though you were writing them for posterity.
[45:3] MORALE BOOST. – עַל כֵּן בֵּרַכְךָ אֱלֹקִים לְעוֹלָם – “Therefore, G-d has blessed you throughout your life.” Through carefully chosen words, boost the morale and give encouragement to a young couple entering marriage..
[45:4] PREPARATION FOR LIFE. – חֲגוֹר חַרְבְּךָ עַל יָרֵךְ גִּבּוֹר הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ – “Gird your sword upon [your] thigh, O mighty warrior. [Victory for Torah and truth will be] your triumph and your glory.” Prepare yourself for the responsibilities of building a home by learning Torah.
[45:9] GARBED IN GOODNESS. – מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת קְצִיעוֹת כָּל בִּגְדֹתֶיךָ – “[The fragrance of] myrrh, aloes, and cassia, [pervades] all your garments.” Let your middos and good deeds be like sweet smelling clothing that enhances your physical body.
[45:18] HISTORY. – אַזְכִּירָה שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל דֹּר וָדֹר – “I will make your name to be remembered in all generations.” Make a contribution to the world that Hashem created. Try to live your life so that it will be sufficiently worthy to be remembered by succeeding generations.
Lessons for Life – Your Attitude.
[45:5] HUMILITY. – וְעַנְוָה צֶדֶק וְתוֹרְךָ נוֹרָאוֹת יְמִינֶךָ – “Righteous humility at your right hand will teach you awesome things.” Live your life with humility, rejecting deception, falsehood, and pride.
[45:7] TRUTH. – כִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹקִים עוֹלָם וָעֶד – “Your throne is [the truth that comes from the throne] of G-d, which is eternal.” In building and administering your home let your guideline always be the truth of G-d.
[45:7] – שֵׁבֶט מִישֹׁר שֵׁבֶט מַלְכוּתֶךָ – “A scepter of integrity is the scepter of your kingdom.”
[45:11] LISTEN. – שִׁמְעִי בַת וּרְאִי וְהַטִּי אָזְנֵךְ – “Hear, O daughter, and see. Incline your ear.” Be receptive to the wisdom of those who preceded you. Don’t be confused by youthful fantasies.
[45:13] SIMPLE LIVING. – וּבַת צֹר בְּמִנְחָה פָּנַיִךְ יְחַלּוּ עֲשִׁירֵי עָם – “[Don’t be seduced by] the power of temptation bearing a gift [of worldly luxury], sought by the richest of the nation.” Don’t be misled by the seductive temptations of luxury.
[45:14] TRUE FULFILLMENT. – כָּל כְּבוּדָּה בַת מֶלֶךְ פְּנִימָה – “The entire glory of the princess is within her home.” Your true fulfillment is not to be found in the false sophistication of society or material wealth.
Tefillos for Life – Your Berachah.
[45:17] WORTHY CHILDREN. – תַּחַת אֲבֹתֶיךָ יִהְיוּ בָנֶיךָ – “May your sons be [worthy of stepping] into the place of your fathers.” Ask Hashem to bless you with worthy children that are able and willing to be living links in the chain of Torah tradition.
The primary sources used in the interpretation of the verses of this mizmor are listed below.
א – רש”י, המאירי, רד”ק, מצודות, אלשיך
ב – רש”י, רד”ק, ספורנו, באר אברהם, נר לרגלי
ג – רד”ק, המאירי, ספורנו, אבן יחייא, באר אברהם
ד – רש”י, רד”ק, המאירי, ספורנו, נר לרגלי
ה – רד”ק, המאירי, ספורנו, מצודות, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה
ו – אבן עזרא, ספורנו, באר אברהם
ז – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, מלבי”ם
ח – רש”י, רד”ק, ספורנו, אבן יחייא, מצודות, מלבי”ם, נר לרגלי, אלשיך
ט – רש”י, רד”ק, המאירי, אבן יחייא, מצודות, אלשיך
י – רש”י, רד”ק, מלבי”ם, נר לרגלי
יא – באר אברהם, אלשיך
יב – רש”י, רד”ק, מצודות, באר אברהם, אלשיך
יג – באר אברהם, מלבי”ם, אלשיך
יד – נר לרגלי, אלשיך
טו – רשר”ה
טז – אבן יחייא, רשר”ה
יז – מצודות, באר אברהם, רשר”ה
יח – ספורנו, אבן יחייא, רשר”ה