(א) מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אַךְ טוֹב לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹקִים לְבָרֵי לֵבָב:
(1) A mizmor by Asaph. G-d is good to Yisrael, to the pure of heart.
NOTE: For a PDF of this mizmor, please click here. This will enable you to print out the entire text of the article. [Rev. 0]
Key Concepts of Mizmor 073 (Seeking Enlightenment)
This mizmor addresses the troubling questions that any devoted servant of Hashem might have about why we often see wicked people (resha’im) enjoying prosperity while righteous people are sometimes forced to suffer.
The mizmor is especially concerned with the self-satisfied attitude of the resha’im who appear to be enjoying a tranquil life despite their lawlessness and their disregard for their Creator. The author of the mizmor describes his personal anguish at being disturbed by his questions and not having a ready answer. Although he feels confident these doubts will not undermine his own rock-solid faith he is concerned about the possible effect these issues may have upon the people as a whole. Therefore, he urgently seeks enlightenment to help him give guidance to others.
He describes how he went through a bout of painful soul-searching until he realized that he was unable to deal with his questions constructively on his own. Superficial answers which appeared to resolve his doubts at an intellectual level were not enough. He needed something deeper, which He found only after visiting Hashem’s holy places to obtain spiritual guidance and inspiration. There he gained a profound spiritual enlightenment that opened his eyes to Hashem’s view of the world. He then understood how we in this world have only a limited view of existence. To begin to truly understand the ways of Hashem one must have a sense of the expanded reality that extends far beyond this temporary world to encompass eternity in the World to Come.
Navigating Tehillim. This is one of 12 mizmorim that were authored by Asaph, reputed to have been one of the sons of Korach (Vayikra Rabbah 17:1). Asaph was enabled to compose these mizmorim through the power of nevuah (prophecy). They were subsequently incorporated by David into the Book of Tehillim. The first of Asaph’s mizmorim to appear in Tehillim is Mizmor 050 (Preparing for Judgment). The rest are in the series 073 through 083.
David also addresses the problem of seeing resha’im prosper. In Mizmor 037 (A Tapestry of enlightenment) he teaches his listeners that the success of the evildoers is only temporary, whereas the righteous will be blessed with true and lasting happiness.
Furthermore, in Mizmor 039 David describes his own personal crisis of conscience in dealing with a painful illness that seemed to be endless. David resolved his crisis by regaining his perspective and his humility when he realized his own insignificance in comparison to the infinity of the Creator.
Exploring the Mizmor
PART 1. ENVY OF THE RESHA’IM. Mizmor 073 opens by identifying Asaph as the composer. Then, in light of the sensitive issues Asaph is about to raise, he establishes as a premise his sincere emunah in the goodness of Hashem. And yet he admits being wracked by envy because of the apparently good life of the wicked (resha’im).
(א) מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אַךְ טוֹב לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹקִים לְבָרֵי לֵבָב: (ב) וַאֲנִי כִּמְעַט [נטוי] נָטָיוּ רַגְלָי כְּאַיִן [שפכה] שֻׁפְּכוּ אֲשֻׁרָי: (ג) כִּי־קִנֵּאתִי בַּהוֹלְלִים שְׁלוֹם רְשָׁעִים אֶרְאֶה:
(1) A mizmor by Asaph. G-d is good to Yisrael, to the pure of heart. (2) But as for me, my feet had almost strayed; my steps nearly slipped off course. (3) For I was envious of the self-indulgent when I saw the serenity of the resha’im.
PART 2. ARROGANCE OF THE RESHA’IM. Asaph elaborates upon the arrogance of the resha’im in what appears to be a pain-free and worry-free existence.
(ד) כִּי אֵין חַרְצֻבּוֹת לְמוֹתָם וּבָרִיא אוּלָם: (ה) בַּעֲמַל אֱנוֹשׁ אֵינֵמוֹ וְעִם־אָדָם לֹא יְנֻגָּעוּ: (ו) לָכֵן עֲנָקַתְמוֹ גַאֲוָה יַעֲטָף־שִׁית חָמָס לָמוֹ: (ז) יָצָא מֵחֵלֶב עֵינֵמוֹ עָבְרוּ מַשְׂכִּיּוֹת לֵבָב: (ח) יָמִיקוּ וִידַבְּרוּ בְרָע עֹשֶׁק מִמָּרוֹם יְדַבֵּרוּ: (ט) שַׁתּוּ בַשָּׁמַיִם פִּיהֶם וּלְשׁוֹנָם תִּהֲלַךְ בָּאָרֶץ:
(4) [When they die,] there are no [painful] chains to their death and their vitality is sound. (5) They are not involved in the wearisome toil of lowly mankind, and they are not victimized by painful diseases like other men. (6) Therefore, arrogance is their necklace. They wrap themselves in lawlessness like an ornamental cloak. (7) Their eyes are blocked by fat; they have surpassed the fantasies of their heart. (8) They demoralize [and defraud their victims]; they boast about their wicked extortion. They speak [as if] from on high. (9) They set their mouth against Heaven and their tongue walks roughshod over everything on earth.
PART 3. PAINFUL QUESTIONS. Asaph presents the questions that bother people about Hashem’s ways in this world. How can it be that He treats the reshai’im well and makes the righteous suffer?
(י) לָכֵן [ישיב] יָשׁוּב עַמּוֹ הֲלֹם וּמֵי מָלֵא יִמָּצוּ לָמוֹ: (יא) וְאָמְרוּ אֵיכָה יָדַע־אֵל וְיֵשׁ דֵּעָה בְעֶלְיוֹן: (יב) הִנֵּה־אֵלֶּה רְשָׁעִים וְשַׁלְוֵי עוֹלָם הִשְׂגּוּ־חָיִל: (יג) אַךְ־רִיק זִכִּיתִי לְבָבִי וָאֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי: (יד) וָאֱהִי נָגוּעַ כָּל־הַיּוֹם וְתוֹכַחְתִּי לַבְּקָרִים:
(10) Therefore, His people keep returning here [to be disturbed by this issue]. The full [cup of bitter] waters are sucked up by them. (11) And they say, “How can G-d know [and allow it]? Is there knowledge [of this] in the Most High? (12) Look at these, the resha’im; they are ever at ease; they amass great wealth. (13) Surely it was for nothing that I purified my heart and washed my hands in cleanliness. (14) I have been stricken all day long and I have been rebuked every morning.”
PART 4. SOUL-SEARCHING. Asaph describes how he came to terms with the questions that were troubling him. He realized that he was unable to deal with them constructively on his own and he was concerned at the effect such issues would have on the other people of his nation. But when he went to Hashem’s holy places and sought spiritual enlightenment he came to understand some of the concepts of Hashem’s cosmic plan. He then gained insight at a deeper level into how Hashem’s view of existence reaches far beyond this temporary world to encompass eternity in the World to Come.
(טו) אִם־אָמַרְתִּי אֲסַפְּרָה כְמוֹ הִנֵּה דוֹר בָּנֶיךָ בָגָדְתִּי: (טז) וָאֲחַשְּׁבָה לָדַעַת זֹאת עָמָל [היא] הוּא בְעֵינָי: (יז) עַד־אָבוֹא אֶל־מִקְדְּשֵׁי־אֵל אָבִינָה לְאַחֲרִיתָם:
(15) If I had decided to tell it as it is [in people’s thoughts], I would have been betraying a generation of Your children. (16) When I pondered [on how] to understand this, [I gave up because] it was a futile effort in my eyes… (17) … until I came to the holy places of G-d. [There I came to] understand their fate [in the World to Come].
PART 5. FATE OF THE RESHA’IM. With his new understanding Asaph elaborates on decisive end of the resha’im. Although their judgment seems to have been long delayed, when the end comes it will be shockingly quick. No one will even remember them.
(יח) אַךְ בַּחֲלָקוֹת תָּשִׁית לָמוֹ הִפַּלְתָּם לְמַשּׁוּאוֹת: (יט) אֵיךְ הָיוּ לְשַׁמָּה כְרָגַע סָפוּ תַמּוּ מִן־בַּלָּהוֹת: (כ) כַּחֲלוֹם מֵהָקִיץ אֲדֹנָי בָּעִיר צַלְמָם תִּבְזֶה:
(18) Indeed, [when] You set [the resha’im] on smooth places, You are casting them down to destruction. (19) [People will wonder:] How have they become desolate as if in an instant. They have reached the limit and now they are consumed in bewilderment. (20) Like a dream [that vanishes] upon awakening, O L-rd, in the city [where they achieved their renown] You will treat their image [of greatness] with contempt.
PART 6. PERSONAL RECOLLECTION. Asaph looks back upon his tortuous experience of learning to understand Hashem’s way. He realizes that it was possible only with the help of Hashem’s right hand. However, he recalls that as bad as his crisis of conscience was, he always maintained an underlying emunah that his questions would ultimately be answered.
(כא) כִּי יִתְחַמֵּץ לְבָבִי וְכִלְיוֹתַי אֶשְׁתּוֹנָן: (כב) וַאֲנִי־בַעַר וְלֹא אֵדָע בְּהֵמוֹת הָיִיתִי עִמָּךְ: (כג) וַאֲנִי תָמִיד עִמָּךְ אָחַזְתָּ בְּיַד־יְמִינִי:
(21) When my heart was in ferment and I would stab my kidneys [with painful thoughts] … (22) … I was an ignoramus and knew nothing. I was like [the mindless] animals before You, [serving you without real understanding]. (23) Still, I was always with You for You held onto my right hand.
PART 7. PLEA FOR GUIDANCE. Asaph concludes the mizmor with a plea for Hashem’s guidance to continue throughout his life. He declares his eternal devotion to Hashem and expressses his fervent desire to always be close to Him. And he commits himself to sharing the lessons of his experience with all of mankind.
(כד) בַּעֲצָתְךָ תַנְחֵנִי וְאַחַר כָּבוֹד תִּקָּחֵנִי: (כה) מִי־לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם וְעִמְּךָ לֹא־חָפַצְתִּי בָאָרֶץ: (כו) כָּלָה שְׁאֵרִי וּלְבָבִי צוּר־לְבָבִי וְחֶלְקִי אֱלֹקִים לְעוֹלָם: (כז) כִּי־הִנֵּה רְחֵקֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ הִצְמַתָּה כָּל־זוֹנֶה מִמֶּךָּ: (כח) וַאֲנִי קִרֲבַת אֱלֹקִים לִי־טוֹב שַׁתִּי בַּאדֹנָי ה’ מַחְסִי לְסַפֵּר כָּל־מַלְאֲכוֹתֶיךָ:
(24) [So now I ask that You] guide me with Your counsel and afterwards, take [my] soul [to You]. (25) Whom do I have in heaven [but You]? And when I am with You I desire nothing on earth. (26) My flesh and my heart will come to an end; but O G-d, [You will continue to be] the Rock of my heart and my Portion, forever. (27) For look, those who are far from You [will ultimately] perish; You cut down all who turn away from You. (28) But as for me, G-d’s nearness is to me [the ultimate] good. I have placed my trust in Hashem/Elokim and [have become Your faithful emissary] to tell of all your miraculous works.
Learning the Mizmor
PART 1. ENVY OF THE RESHA’IM
(א) מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף
This mizmor was composed by Asaph — מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף .
אַךְ טוֹב לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹקִים
Even though — אַךְ – I have questioned Yisrael’s sufferings in Exile, I know that G-d is good and He is good to Yisrael — אַךְ טוֹב לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹקִים . Everything coming from Him is good. He even keeps a count of all the people’s good deeds for which they will be repaid in the World to Come. Surely the pain they are now suffering will ultimately be for their benefit.
Not everyone understands this but it is clear to the pure of heart — לְבָרֵי לֵבָב – who have the wisdom to use their sufferings to stimulate further character development. .
(ב) וַאֲנִי כִּמְעַט [נטוי] נָטָיוּ רַגְלָי
כְּאַיִן [שפכה] שֻׁפְּכוּ אֲשֻׁרָי:
But as for me — וַאֲנִי , before I thought deeply into the ways of my Creator, my feet had almost strayed — כִּמְעַט נָטָיוּ רַגְלָי –from my emunah in Hashem’s way when I saw how resha’im were prospering while tzadikim were suffering. Not only was my emunah at risk, my steps very nearly slipped off course — כְּאַיִן שֻׁפְּכוּ אֲשֻׁרָי and my behavior may have been corrupted.
(ג) כִּי קִנֵּאתִי בַּהוֹלְלִים
שְׁלוֹם רְשָׁעִים אֶרְאֶה:
For I was envious of the self-indulgent, irresponsible people — כִּי־קִנֵּאתִי בַּהוֹלְלִים , when I saw the serenity of those resha’im — שְׁלוֹם רְשָׁעִים אֶרְאֶה . Even when they died, they did so peacefully, without pain. Though I remained aware that everything Hashem does is done intelligently, I had difficulty in accepting it all emotionally.
PART 2. ARROGANCE OF THE RESHA’IM
(ד) כִּי אֵין חַרְצֻבּוֹת לְמוֹתָם
Because even when their life is finished the resha’im pass away peacefully and painlessly. There are no chains between body and soul that must be painfully severed when they succumb to their death — כִּי אֵין חַרְצֻבּוֹת לְמוֹתָם – and this is not an indication of weakness for, their vitality is sound — וּבָרִיא אוּלָם – throughout their lifetime.
(ה) בַּעֲמַל אֱנוֹשׁ אֵינֵמוֹ
וְעִם אָדָם לֹא יְנֻגָּעוּ:
Since they are well off they are not involved in the wearisome toil that is the lot of lowly mankind — בַּעֲמַל אֱנוֹשׁ אֵינֵמוֹ , and they are not victimized by diseases like other men — וְעִם־אָדָם לֹא יְנֻגָּעוּ .
(ו) לָכֵן עֲנָקַתְמוֹ גַאֲוָה
יַעֲטָף שִׁית חָמָס לָמוֹ:
Therefore — לָכֵן , they are filled with pride and self-confidence because they don’t suffer misfortune. Arrogance is a necklace — עֲנָקַתְמוֹ גַאֲוָה – around their proud necks. They wrap themselves in lawlessness — יַעֲטָף־שִׁית חָמָס לָמוֹ – as if it were an ornamental cloak.
(ז) יָצָא מֵחֵלֶב עֵינֵמוֹ
עָבְרוּ מַשְׂכִּיּוֹת לֵבָב:
Their eyes bulge out with the fat of their self-indulgence, — יָצָא מֵחֵלֶב עֵינֵמוֹ blocking their vision. In fulfilling their every desire, they have surpassed the fantasies of their heart — עָבְרוּ מַשְׂכִּיּוֹת לֵבָב .
(ח) יָמִיקוּ וִידַבְּרוּ בְרָע עֹשֶׁק
They demoralize and defraud their victims, and they boast shamelessly about the wicked extortion — יָמִיקוּ וִידַבְּרוּ בְרָע עֹשֶׁק – that they perpetrate upon the helpless. They speak as if from on high — מִמָּרוֹם יְדַבֵּרוּ , acting as if there were no authority above them.
(ט) שַׁתּוּ בַשָּׁמַיִם פִּיהֶם
וּלְשׁוֹנָם תִּהֲלַךְ בָּאָרֶץ:
They are without fear of Hashem and even set their mouth to speak against Heaven — שַׁתּוּ בַשָּׁמַיִם פִּיהֶם , arguing that His authoritry does not extend to the earth. And their tongue walks roughshod over everything on earth — וּלְשׁוֹנָם תִּהֲלַךְ בָּאָרֶץ . They pass judgment on all things and all people and act as if they were the masters of the universe.
PART 3. PAINFUL QUESTIONS
(י) לָכֵן [ישיב] יָשׁוּב עַמּוֹ הֲלֹם
וּמֵי מָלֵא יִמָּצוּ לָמוֹ:
Therefore because of the prosperity of the resha’im, His people keep returning here — לָכֵן יָשׁוּב עַמּוֹ הֲלֹם – to be disturbed by this issue. As a result, the full cup of bitter waters of heresy are eagerly sucked up by them — וּמֵי מָלֵא יִמָּצוּ לָמוֹ .
(יא) וְאָמְרוּ אֵיכָה יָדַע אֵ־ל
וְיֵשׁ דֵּעָה בְעֶלְיוֹן:
And they say — וְאָמְרוּ , “How can we believe that G-d knows — אֵיכָה יָדַע־אֵ־ל – the ways of man when we see the righteous suffer while the wicked prosper? Can the Torah be true? Is there indeed knowledge in the Most High of what is happening here on earth — וְיֵשׁ דֵּעָה בְעֶלְיוֹן ? Are not the ways of men on earth much too insignificant for Him?”
(יב) הִנֵּה אֵלֶּה רְשָׁעִים
וְשַׁלְוֵי עוֹלָם הִשְׂגּוּ חָיִל:
“Look at these, the resha’im — הִנֵּה־אֵלֶּה רְשָׁעִים , who transgress His Torah. Life is simple for them. Although they are ever at ease, they continue to amass great wealth — וְשַׁלְוֵי עוֹלָם הִשְׂגּוּ־חָיִל .”
(יג) אַךְ רִיק זִכִּיתִי לְבָבִי
וָאֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי:
“Surely it was for nothing that I purified my heart — אַךְ־רִיק זִכִּיתִי לְבָבִי of harmful thoughts, and washed my hands in cleanliness — וָאֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי restraining myself from sinful actions. I took pains to return property that was of questionable legality. What good did all this do me?”
(יד) וָאֱהִי נָגוּעַ כָּל הַיּוֹם
“For despite my efforts, I have been stricken by sorrow all day long — וָאֱהִי נָגוּעַ כָּל־הַיּוֹם , and I have been rebuked every morning — וְתוֹכַחְתִּי לַבְּקָרִים . Every day I experienced a new mishap that showed me that I was not upon the right path.”
PART 4. SOUL-SEARCHING
(טו) אִם אָמַרְתִּי אֲסַפְּרָה כְמוֹ
הִנֵּה דוֹר בָּנֶיךָ בָגָדְתִּי:
Asaph now says: I will say no more about this because if I had decided — אִם־אָמַרְתִּי , to tell it all as it is in the people’s thoughts — אֲסַפְּרָה כְמוֹ , that is, to present all their doubts and questions, I would have been betraying a generation of Your children — הִנֵּה דוֹר בָּנֶיךָ בָגָדְתִּי . It would be an indictment against them. And even those who are still faithful to you might have been drawn away to rebellion.
(טז) וָאֲחַשְּׁבָה לָדַעַת זֹאת
עָמָל [היא] הוּא בְעֵינָי:
I had decided not to speak of this issue, but when I pondered on how to understand this — וָאֲחַשְּׁבָה לָדַעַת זֹאת , I gave up because it was a futile effort in my eyes — עָמָל הוּא בְעֵינָי . I realized that I was questioning the principals of emunah for no constructive purpose …
(יז) עַד אָבוֹא אֶל מִקְדְּשֵׁי אֵ־ל
… until I came to the holy places of G-d — עַד־אָבוֹא אֶל־מִקְדְּשֵׁי־אֵ־ל – where I could receive spiritual guidance and inspiration. There I learned to understand and deeply accept in my heart what their end will be — אָבִינָה לְאַחֲרִיתָם – in the World to Come. The righteous will receive their reward and wicked will receive their punishment.
PART 5. FATE OF THE RESHA’IM
(יח) אַךְ בַּחֲלָקוֹת תָּשִׁית לָמוֹ
Indeed, the wicked will not endure for although it looks as if you are being good to them when You set them on smooth places — אַךְ בַּחֲלָקוֹת תָּשִׁית לָמוֹ , they easily can slip and fall. Thus, You are actually casting them down to eternal destruction — הִפַּלְתָּם לְמַשּׁוּאוֹת .
(יט) אֵיךְ הָיוּ לְשַׁמָּה כְרָגַע
סָפוּ תַמּוּ מִן בַּלָּהוֹת:
When that day comes and people see what has happened to the resha’im, the onlookers will wonder: How have they suddenly become desolate, as if in an instant — אֵיךְ הָיוּ לְשַׁמָּה כְרָגַע ! They have suddenly reached the limit — סָפוּ of their good fortune, and now they are consumed in bewilderment — תַמּוּ מִן־בַּלָּהוֹת .
(כ) כַּחֲלוֹם מֵהָקִיץ
אֲדֹ־נָי בָּעִיר צַלְמָם תִּבְזֶה:
Like a dream that vanishes upon awakening — כַּחֲלוֹם מֵהָקִיץ , so, O L-rd, in the city where the resha’im achieved their renown, You will treat their image of greatness with contempt — אֲדֹ־נָי בָּעִיר צַלְמָם תִּבְזֶה – as You totally destroy them so that any remembrance of them is erased.
PART 6. PERSONAL RECOLLECTION
(כא) כִּי יִתְחַמֵּץ לְבָבִי
Before I realized the truth, when my heart was in ferment — כִּי יִתְחַמֵּץ לְבָבִי with conflicting emotions because of the prosperity of the wicked, and I would stab my kidneys, the seat of reasoning, with painful thoughts — וְכִלְיוֹתַי אֶשְׁתּוֹנָן , …
(כב) וַאֲנִי בַעַר וְלֹא אֵדָע
בְּהֵמוֹת הָיִיתִי עִמָּךְ:
… I was an ignoramus and knew nothing — וַאֲנִי־בַעַר וְלֹא אֵדָע . I was like the mindless animals before You — בְּהֵמוֹת הָיִיתִי עִמָּךְ: , serving You without real understanding.
(כג) וַאֲנִי תָמִיד עִמָּךְ
אָחַזְתָּ בְּיַד יְמִינִי:
Still, I was always with You — וַאֲנִי תָמִיד עִמָּךְ . Despite my doubts I remained faithful to you and continually placed my awareness of You before me. But I did not do this alone You held onto my right hand — אָחַזְתָּ בְּיַד־יְמִינִי: – to help me keep from going astray.
PART 7. PLEA FOR GUIDANCE
(כד) בַּעֲצָתְךָ תַנְחֵנִי
וְאַחַר כָּבוֹד תִּקָּחֵנִי:
Just as You have enlightened me in my perplexity, I pray that You guide me with Your counsel — בַּעֲצָתְךָ תַנְחֵנִי throughout my remaining days. And afterwards, take my soul to You — וְאַחַר כָּבוֹד תִּקָּחֵנִי .
(כה) מִי לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם
וְעִמְּךָ לֹא חָפַצְתִּי בָאָרֶץ:
I recognize no other power that can share Your glory in heaven or earth. Whom do I have in heaven but You — מִי־לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם ? And when I am with You I desire nothing on earth — וְעִמְּךָ לֹא־חָפַצְתִּי בָאָרֶץ: .
(כו) כָּלָה שְׁאֵרִי וּלְבָבִי
צוּר לְבָבִי וְחֶלְקִי אֱלֹקִים לְעוֹלָם:
Though my flesh (my physical body) and my heart (my earthly desires), will eventually come to an end — כָּלָה שְׁאֵרִי וּלְבָבִי , O G-d, You will continue to be the Rock of my heart (my intellect), and You will be my Portion, (defining my relationship with You), forever — צוּר־לְבָבִי וְחֶלְקִי אֱלֹקִים לְעוֹלָם .
(כז) כִּי הִנֵּה רְחֵקֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ
הִצְמַתָּה כָּל זוֹנֶה מִמֶּךָּ:
For look, since You are Source of life, those who are far from You will ultimately perish — כִּי־הִנֵּה רְחֵקֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ , even though they may be temporarily prospering. But also, through Your Heavenly judgment You cut down all who turn away from You in thought and deed — הִצְמַתָּה כָּל־זוֹנֶה מִמֶּךָּ . After the death of their physical body, nothing will remain of their earthly existence.
(כח) וַאֲנִי קִרֲבַת אֱלֹקִים לִי טוֹב
שַׁתִּי בַּאדֹ־נָי ה’ מַחְסִי לְסַפֵּר כָּל מַלְאֲכוֹתֶיךָ:
But as for me — וַאֲנִי , I don’t want to be far from You. G-d’s nearness is to me the ultimate good — קִרֲבַת אֱלֹקִים לִי־טוֹב . I have placed my trust in Hashem/Elokim — שַׁתִּי בַּאדֹ־נָי ה’ מַחְסִי – and have become Your faithful emissary, to tell of all your miraculous works — לְסַפֵּר כָּל־מַלְאֲכוֹתֶיךָ – to mankind.
The primary sources used in the interpretation of the verses of this mizmor are listed below.
א – רש”י, רד”ק, המאירי, ספורנו, באר אברהם, נר לרגלי
ב – רש”י, רד”ק, ספורנו, אבן יחייא
ג – מצודות, המאירי, אלשיך
ד – רד”ק, המאירי, בן־רמוך
ה – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, רשר”ה
ו – רש”י, בן־רמוך, נר לרגלי
ז – רש”י, רד”ק, המאירי
ח – רש”י, אבן עזרא, רד”ק, המאירי
ט – המאירי, באר אברהם, רשר”ה
י – רש”י, רד”ק, המאירי, בן־רמוך, מצודות, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה
יא – רש”י, רד”ק, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה
יב – רש”י
יג – רש”י, בן־רמוך, מלבי”ם, נר לרגלי
יד – רש”י, רשר”ה
טו – רש”י, מצודות, מלבי”ם
טז – רש”י, אבן עזרא, רד”ק, אבן יחייא, מלבי”ם
יז – רש”י, אבן עזרא, בן־רמוך, אבן יחייא, מצודות, נר לרגלי, דעת סופרים
יח – רש”י, רד”ק, מלבי”ם, רשר”ה
יט – רד”ק, אבן יחייא מצודות, רשר”ה,,
כ – אבן עזרא, המאירי, נר לרגלי
כא – רש”י, רד”ק, אלשיך
כב – רש”י, רד”ק
כג – רש”י, ספורנו
כד – רד”ק, המאירי
כה – רד”ק
כו – רד”ק, המאירי
כז – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, מלבי”ם
כח – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, אלשיך, מצודות