(א) מַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף לָמָה אֱלֹקִים זָנַחְתָּ לָנֶצַח יֶעְשַׁן אַפְּךָ בְּצֹאן מַרְעִיתֶךָ:
(1) A song of enlightenment by Asaph. Why, O G-d, have You abandoned your flock [for what seems like] forever? [Why] does Your wrath smolder against the flock of Your pasture.
NOTE: For a PDF of this mizmor, please click here. This will enable you to print out the entire text of the article. [Rev. 0]
Key Concepts of Mizmor 074 (Why Have You Abandoned Us?)
In composing this mizmor, the prophet Asaph foresaw that there would come a time such as the present when the Jewish people would be scattered around the world in a seemingly endless Galus (Exile). The mizmor is a lamentation for the destruction of the Bais HaMikdash (Temple) and a tefillah for Hashem to bring the Geulah (Redemption).
Asaph described his mizmor as a maskil (song of enlightenment) because it opens our eyes to the viciousness and hatred with which our enemies have carried out their charge to drive us into exile. That hatred is directly related to their resentment of the Creator’s laws of morality and ethics that were introduced to the world by our forefathers, and which are expressed in the Torah.
The intellectual reasoning behind Asaph’s tefillah to the Creator is grounded on the sacrilege and the insult to the Name of Hashem that continues to exist in the world as long as our enemies are able to maintain the harsh conditions of Exile. Even if we are unworthy we do not hesitate to throw ourselves upon Hashem’s mercy. We ask Him to take into account the devotion of our forefathers and the promises He made to them and the Covenant he sealed with them.
The Exile and the destruction of the Bais HaMikdash seem to imply an abandonment by G-d of the Jewish people. However, we know that this is a temporary condition that came about because of our sins and that is why we try to be worthy of the Geulah. We have complete faith that when the time is right the Name of Hashem will be restored to universal recognition and respect. With this mizmor that was composed such a long time ago we pray that this time will come soon.
Exploring the Mizmor
PART 1. INTRODUCTION. Mizmor 073 opens with a tearful cry of the Jewish people in Exile, a cry which is the theme of the mizmor: “Why, O G-d, have You abandoned your flock?” In these dark days Hashem seems to be acting as though He has forgotten us, and so Asaph uses the language of human memory, pleading with Hashem to recall our bonding with Him when we first became a nation. That bond became secure when the Shechinah (Divine Presence) began to dwell among the people in the Bais HaMikdash on “the mountain of Tzion”.
(א) מַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף לָמָה אֱלֹקִים זָנַחְתָּ לָנֶצַח יֶעְשַׁן אַפְּךָ בְּצֹאן מַרְעִיתֶךָ: (ב) זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶּדֶם גָּאַלְתָּ שֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתֶךָ הַר־צִיּוֹן זֶה שָׁכַנְתָּ בּוֹ:
(1) A song of enlightenment by Asaph.. Why, O G-d, have You abandoned your flock [for what seems like] forever? [Why] does Your wrath smolder against the flock of Your pasture. (2) Remember Your [treasured] community [that] You took to be Your own long ago. [In Mitzrayim] You redeemed the tribe of Your [intended] heritage, [bringing them to] the mountain of Tzion, where Your Presence dwelled.
PART 2. WHAT THEY HAVE DONE. Memories of the Bais Hamikdash in Tzion have triggered a reminder of the destruction wrought by our enemies when we were driven into exile. Asaph now elaborates on the brutality with which they carried out their task and the insult to the One Who called it His abode. In our tefillah to Hashem, these memories serve as a strong argument for Him to take action now and end the Galus: “Lift up Your steps”.
(ג) הָרִימָה פְעָמֶיךָ לְמַשֻּׁאוֹת נֶצַח כָּל־הֵרַע אוֹיֵב בַּקֹּדֶשׁ: (ד) שָׁאֲגוּ צֹרְרֶיךָ בְּקֶרֶב מוֹעֲדֶךָ שָׂמוּ אוֹתֹתָם אֹתוֹת: (ה) יִוָּדַע כְּמֵבִיא לְמָעְלָה בִּסֲבָךְ־עֵץ קַרְדֻּמּוֹת: (ו) ועת וְעַתָּה פִּתּוּחֶיהָ יָּחַד בְּכַשִּׁיל וְכֵילַפֹּת יַהֲלֹמוּן: (ז) שִׁלְחוּ בָאֵשׁ מִקְדָּשֶׁךָ לָאָרֶץ חִלְּלוּ מִשְׁכַּן־שְׁמֶךָ: (ח) אָמְרוּ בְלִבָּם נִינָם יָחַד שָׂרְפוּ כָל־מוֹעֲדֵי־אֵל בָּאָרֶץ:
(3) Lift up Your steps to eternal destruction of the enemy [haters for] all the evil [they perpetrated] in the Sanctuary. (3) Your tormentors have raged in the midst of [the Bais HaMikdash,] Your meeting place. (4) They established their symbols as symbols [of truth]. (5) [They cried out:] Let it be known as [if we are] bringing [our blows] against [the One] Above [as we wield our] axes into the dense wood. (6) And now, [they have attacked] all its carved designs together, hacking away with hammer and chisels. (7) They have set fire to Your Sanctuary. They have desecrated the abode of Your Name [toppling it] to the ground (8) They said In their hearts, “Let us destroy them altogether.” They have burned down all of G-d’s meeting places in the Land.
PART 3. PLEA FOR A SIGN OF GEULAH. Despite the desperate urgency of the Geulah, we have not yet seen any indication that it is beginning, and so the tefillah to Hashem continues, as we ask again, “How long?” Clearly Hashem’s direct and visible action is called for.
(ט) אוֹתֹתֵינוּ לֹא רָאִינוּ אֵין־עוֹד נָבִיא וְלֹא־אִתָּנוּ יֹדֵעַ עַד־מָה: (י) עַד־מָתַי אֱלֹקִים יְחָרֶף צָר יְנָאֵץ אוֹיֵב שִׁמְךָ לָנֶצַח: (יא) לָמָּה תָשִׁיב יָדְךָ וִימִינֶךָ מִקֶּרֶב [חוקך] חֵיקְךָ כַלֵּה:
(9) We have not [yet] seen our [anticipated] signs [of the Geulah]. There is no longer a prophet and there is none among us who knows how long [we will have to wait]. (10) How long, O G-d, will the tormentor insult? Will the foe revile Your Name forever? (11) Why do You withhold Your [left] hand? And Your right hand? Remove [Your hand] from within Your bosom and drive out the enemy.
PART 4. RECALLING PAST YESHUOS. To validate our argument for Hashem’s direct action, we think back upon the times past when He brough yeshuos to our people. These signs of His might were not random occurrences, but an ongoing reflection of the control that Hashem continues to exert over all of Creation, especially in the cosmos, where the boundaries of time and space are visible on a daily basis.
(יב) וֵאלֹקִים מַלְכִּי מִקֶּדֶם פֹּעֵל יְשׁוּעוֹת בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ: (יג) אַתָּה פוֹרַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל־הַמָּיִם: (יד) אַתָּה רִצַּצְתָּ רָאשֵׁי לִוְיָתָן תִּתְּנֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לְעָם לְצִיִּים: (טו) אַתָּה בָקַעְתָּ מַעְיָן וָנָחַל אַתָּה הוֹבַשְׁתָּ נַהֲרוֹת אֵיתָן: (טז) לְךָ יוֹם אַף־לְךָ לָיְלָה אַתָּה הֲכִינוֹתָ מָאוֹר וָשָׁמֶשׁ: (יז) אַתָּה הִצַּבְתָּ כָּל־גְּבוּלוֹת אָרֶץ קַיִץ וָחֹרֶף אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּם:
(12) For G-d was [already] my King in earlier times, performing yeshuos throughout the earth. (13) You shattered the Sea with Your might. You smashed the heads of sea serpents (the army of Pharaoh) upon the water. (14) You crushed the head of Leviasan (i.e. Pharaoh and his generals). You gave [his treasure as] food to the people of the wilderness. (15) You split open springs and streams. You dried the mighty rivers. (16) Yours is the day, also Yours is the night. You have set the moon and the sun [into their orbits]. (17) You established all the boundaries of earth. Summer and winter, You fashioned them.
PART 5. A FINAL PLEA. We conclude the tefillah with a heartfelt plea for Hashem to raise the priority of our request. In justifying this request we point out the desecration of Hashem’s Name that our enemies continue to perpetrate. We also allude to the suffering and the impoverishment that our people have endured under the yoke of our enemies. The harm that we are experiencing is clearly entwined with the harm being done to the glory of Hashem’s Name. Thus, the Geulah will ultimately restore that glory in the world.
(יח) זְכָר־זֹאת אוֹיֵב חֵרֵף ה’ וְעַם נָבָל נִאֲצוּ שְׁמֶךָ: (יט) אַל־תִּתֵּן לְחַיַּת נֶפֶשׁ תּוֹרֶךָ חַיַּת עֲנִיֶּיךָ אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח: (כ) הַבֵּט לַבְּרִית כִּי מָלְאוּ מַחֲשַׁכֵּי־אֶרֶץ נְאוֹת חָמָס: (כא) אַל־יָשֹׁב דַּךְ נִכְלָם עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן יְהַלְלוּ שְׁמֶךָ: (כב) קוּמָה אֱלֹקִים רִיבָה רִיבֶךָ זְכֹר חֶרְפָּתְךָ מִנִּי־נָבָל כָּל־הַיּוֹם: (כג) אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח קוֹל צֹרְרֶיךָ שְׁאוֹן קָמֶיךָ עֹלֶה תָמִיד:
(18) Be mindful of this: The foe reviles Hashem and a base people reviles Your Name. (19) Don’t deliver the soul of Your turtledove to the wild beast. Don’t forget the community of Your poor forever. (20) Look to the covenant, for the dark places of the earth are filled with dens of lawlessness. (21) Don’t turn back the downtrodden in shame. Let the poor and destitute praise Your Name [in gratitude]. (22) Arise, O God, champion Your cause. Be mindful of Your daily insults from base men. (23) Don’t ignore the voice of your enemies, the clamor of Your adversaries that incessantly rises up.
Learning the Mizmor
PART 1. INTRODUCTION
(א) מַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף
לָמָה אֱלֹקִים זָנַחְתָּ לָנֶצַח
יֶעְשַׁן אַפְּךָ בְּצֹאן מַרְעִיתֶךָ:
A song of enlightenment by Asaph — מַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף . The people of Yisrael are crying out to Hashem: Why, O G-d, have You abandoned your flock forever — לָמָה אֱלֹקִים זָנַחְתָּ לָנֶצַח ? We desperately want to be close to You. What purpose is served by casting us off for such a long time that it seems as though it has been forever? Why does Your wrath smolder — יֶעְשַׁן אַפְּךָ – like smoke from a fire that has gone out, against the flock of Your pasture — בְּצֹאן מַרְעִיתֶךָ ? We have no Shepherd other than You. No shepherd would wish to see his flock destroyed.
(ב) זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶּדֶם
גָּאַלְתָּ שֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתֶךָ
הַר צִיּוֹן זֶה שָׁכַנְתָּ בּוֹ:
Remember Your treasured community — זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ , the people that You took to be Your own long ago — קָנִיתָ קֶּדֶם – in Mitzrayim. They are the people that You redeemed — גָּאַלְתָּ – from slavery through Your many wonders. When all others had abandoned You, they were the united tribe — שֵׁבֶט that was to be Your own precious heritage — נַחֲלָתֶךָ – for all time. They are the tribe which You brought to the mountain of Tzion, where Your Presence dwelled — הַר־צִיּוֹן זֶה שָׁכַנְתָּ בּוֹ . We now ask that You take active possession of us once more, return to Tzion and redeem us from this Exile.
PART 2. WHAT THEY HAVE DONE
(ג) הָרִימָה פְעָמֶיךָ לְמַשֻּׁאוֹת נֶצַח
כָּל הֵרַע אוֹיֵב בַּקֹּדֶשׁ:
Give us a sign that You are ready to redeem us. Lift up Your steps — הָרִימָה פְעָמֶיךָ to begin an eternal destruction — לְמַשֻּׁאוֹת נֶצַח – of the enemy because of all the evil they perpetrated in the Sanctuary — כָּל־הֵרַע אוֹיֵב בַּקֹּדֶשׁ .
(ד) שָׁאֲגוּ צֹרְרֶיךָ בְּקֶרֶב מוֹעֲדֶךָ
שָׂמוּ אוֹתֹתָם אֹתוֹת:
Those who were our tormentors, are also Your tormentors for they have raged — שָׁאֲגוּ צֹרְרֶיךָ in the midst of the Bais HaMikdash, Your meeting place — בְּקֶרֶב מוֹעֲדֶךָ , which You consecrated for Your meeting with Yisrael. It was Your rule over the earth that they sought to drive away. They established their symbols as the symbols of truth — שָׂמוּ אוֹתֹתָם אֹתוֹת .
(ה) יִוָּדַע כְּמֵבִיא לְמָעְלָה
בִּסֲבָךְ עֵץ קַרְדֻּמּוֹת:
When they violently attacked the gates of the holy structure, they cried out: Let it be known — יִוָּדַע as though we are bringing our blows against the One Above in Heaven — כְּמֵבִיא לְמָעְלָה , as we wield our axes into the dense wood — בִּסֲבָךְ־עֵץ קַרְדֻּמּוֹת ,
(ו) וְעַתָּה פִּתּוּחֶיהָ יָּחַד
בְּכַשִּׁיל וְכֵילַפֹּת יַהֲלֹמוּן:
And now, after having been inspired by these declarations to destroy the Beis HaMikdash, they attacked all its carved designs together — וְעַתָּה פִּתּוּחֶיהָ יָּחַד , hacking them away with hammer and chisels — בְּכַשִּׁיל וְכֵילַפֹּת יַהֲלֹמוּן to remove even the remnants of ornamental work from the fragments which they find among the ruins. They have been filled with such rabid hatred that even now, they work avidly to erase from the remaining fragments every trace of the holy task for which they were originally consecrated.
(ז) שִׁלְחוּ בָאֵשׁ מִקְדָּשֶׁךָ
לָאָרֶץ חִלְּלוּ מִשְׁכַּן שְׁמֶךָ:
They have set fire to Your Sanctuary — שִׁלְחוּ בָאֵשׁ מִקְדָּשֶׁךָ . They have desecrated the abode of Your Name by toppling its walls and throwing its holy vessels to the ground — לָאָרֶץ חִלְּלוּ מִשְׁכַּן־שְׁמֶךָ .
(ח) אָמְרוּ בְלִבָּם נִינָם יָחַד
שָׂרְפוּ כָל מוֹעֲדֵי אֵל בָּאָרֶץ:
They said In their hearts, — אָמְרוּ בְלִבָּם “Let us destroy them altogether — נִינָם יָחַד .” They have burned down all of the houses of prayer, G-d’s meeting places in the Land — שָׂרְפוּ כָל מוֹעֲדֵי אֵ־ל בָּאָרֶץ .
PART 3. PLEA FOR A SIGN OF GEULAH
(ט) אוֹתֹתֵינוּ לֹא רָאִינוּ
אֵין עוֹד נָבִיא
וְלֹא אִתָּנוּ יֹדֵעַ עַד מָה:
We have been in Exile for such a long time and we have watching patiently for the signs of the coming Geulah that Your prophets had promised, but we have not seen our anticipated signs — אוֹתֹתֵינוּ לֹא רָאִינוּ . There is no longer a prophet — אֵין־עוֹד נָבִיא – who can tell us when the time of the Geulah will come, and there is none among us who knows how long — וְלֹא־אִתָּנוּ יֹדֵעַ עַד־מָה – we will have to wait.
(י) עַד מָתַי אֱלֹקִים יְחָרֶף צָר
יְנָאֵץ אוֹיֵב שִׁמְךָ לָנֶצַח:
How long, O G-d, will the tormentor insult Your Name — עַד־מָתַי אֱלֹקִים יְחָרֶף צָר , asking why you do not show Yourself and claiming that You are unable to end the Galus. Will the foe be allowed to revile Your Name forever — יְנָאֵץ אוֹיֵב שִׁמְךָ לָנֶצַח ?
(יא) לָמָּה תָשִׁיב יָדְךָ וִימִינֶךָ
מִקֶּרֶב חֵיקְךָ כַלֵּה:
Why do You withhold Your left hand, which symbolizes Your might, — לָמָּה תָשִׁיב יָדְךָ – from executing justice against the enemy? And why do You withhold Your right hand, which symbolizes Your kindness, — וִימִינֶךָ from protecting Your people? Remove Your hand from within Your bosom — מִקֶּרֶב חֵיקְךָ – and drive out the enemy — כַלֵּה !
PART 4. RECALLING PAST YESHUOS
(יב) וֵאלֹקִים מַלְכִּי מִקֶּדֶם
פֹּעֵל יְשׁוּעוֹת בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ:
For G-d was already my King in earlier times when we were in Mitzrayim — וֵאלֹקִים מַלְכִּי מִקֶּדֶם . Although His kingdom extends into the distant heavens, He was performing yeshuos for us throughout the earth — פֹּעֵל יְשׁוּעוֹת בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ – even in the lands of our enemies. And He did so without even requiring the active involvement of Yisrael in our own defense.
(יג) אַתָּה פוֹרַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם
שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל הַמָּיִם:
You hardened and then shattered the Sea into many pieces with Your might — אַתָּה פוֹרַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם – so that the tribes of Yisrael could pass. You smashed the heads of sea serpents (the army of Pharaoh) upon the water — שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל־הַמָּיִם , which they worshipped as a god.
(יד) אַתָּה רִצַּצְתָּ רָאשֵׁי לִוְיָתָן
תִּתְּנֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לְעָם לְצִיִּים:
You crushed the head of Leviasan (i.e. Pharaoh and his generals) — אַתָּה רִצַּצְתָּ רָאשֵׁי לִוְיָתָן . You gave his treasure as food to Yisrael, the people of the wilderness — תִּתְּנֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לְעָם לְצִיִּים .
(טו) אַתָּה בָקַעְתָּ מַעְיָן וָנָחַל
אַתָּה הוֹבַשְׁתָּ נַהֲרוֹת אֵיתָן:
You split open the rock to yield springs and streams — אַתָּה בָקַעְתָּ מַעְיָן וָנָחַל , which Moshe brought forth from the rock. You dried the mighty rivers — אַתָּה הוֹבַשְׁתָּ נַהֲרוֹת אֵיתָן , the Yarden and its tributaries.
(טז) לְךָ יוֹם אַף לְךָ לָיְלָה
אַתָּה הֲכִינוֹתָ מָאוֹר וָשָׁמֶשׁ:
There is only One Power, for You control both light and darkness. Yours is the day of Geulah, also Yours is the night of Galus— לְךָ יוֹם אַף־לְךָ לָיְלָה . You have set both the moon and the sun into their orbits — אַתָּה הֲכִינוֹתָ מָאוֹר וָשָׁמֶשׁ – because they are not separate powers, but are all under Your direction. Therefore nothing stands in Your way to bring yeshuos to Your people.
(יז) אַתָּה הִצַּבְתָּ כָּל גְּבוּלוֹת אָרֶץ
קַיִץ וָחֹרֶף אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּם:
You established all the boundaries of earth — אַתָּה הִצַּבְתָּ כָּל־גְּבוּלוֹת אָרֶץ – for the benefit of its creatures. Summer and winter, You fashioned them — קַיִץ וָחֹרֶף אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּם – together with the corresponding phenomena of heat and cold, as well as all the other opposites in the natural world.
PART 5. A FINAL PLEA
(יח) זְכָר זֹאת אוֹיֵב חֵרֵף ה‘
וְעַם נָבָל נִאֲצוּ שְׁמֶךָ:
Hashem, be mindful of this — זְכָר־זֹאת – and save us: The foe reviles Hashem as he marches to annihilate us — אוֹיֵב חֵרֵף ה’ , and a base people reviles Your Name — וְעַם נָבָל נִאֲצוּ שְׁמֶךָ ,– so don’t leave us in their power indefinitely.
(יט) אַל תִּתֵּן לְחַיַּת נֶפֶשׁ תּוֹרֶךָ
חַיַּת עֲנִיֶּיךָ אַל תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח:
Yisrael is faithful to You like the turtledove, which is famous for its fidelity to its mate. Don’t deliver the soul of Yisrael, Your innocent, defenseless turtledove, to the vicious Bavel, the wild beast — אַל־תִּתֵּן לְחַיַּת נֶפֶשׁ תּוֹרֶךָ . Don’t forget the community of Your poor forever — חַיַּת עֲנִיֶּיךָ אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח .
(כ) הַבֵּט לַבְּרִית
כִּי מָלְאוּ מַחֲשַׁכֵּי אֶרֶץ נְאוֹת חָמָס:
Even if were are unworthy, look to the Covenant — הַבֵּט לַבְּרִית , the absolute pledge that You gave to our forefathers, for the dark places of the earth where Yisrael is exiled are filled — כִּי מָלְאוּ מַחֲשַׁכֵּי־אֶרֶץ – with dens of lawlessness — נְאוֹת חָמָס – and so were constantly at risk of violence.
(כא) אַל יָשֹׁב דַּךְ נִכְלָם
עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן יְהַלְלוּ שְׁמֶךָ:
Don’t turn back the downtrodden in shame — אַל־יָשֹׁב דַּךְ נִכְלָם – because their prayers were not anwered. Let the poor and destitute of Yisrael in Exile find with You the answer to their plea for help and praise Your Name — עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן יְהַלְלוּ שְׁמֶךָ – in gratitude, so that they will be the heralds of Your yeshuah.
(כב) קוּמָה אֱלֹקִים
רִיבָה רִיבֶךָ זְכֹר חֶרְפָּתְךָ מִנִּי נָבָל כָּל הַיּוֹם:
Arise, O God — קוּמָה אֱלֹקִים , if You don’t do it for our benefit, champion Your own cause — רִיבָה רִיבֶךָ and Your goals for mankind that have been challenged with the argument, “Where is your G-d?” Be mindful of Your daily insults from base men — זְכֹר חֶרְפָּתְךָ מִנִּי־נָבָל כָּל־הַיּוֹם .
(כג) אַל תִּשְׁכַּח קוֹל צֹרְרֶיךָ
שְׁאוֹן קָמֶיךָ עֹלֶה תָמִיד:
Don’t ignore the voice of your enemies — אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח קוֹל צֹרְרֶיךָ , the clamor of Your adversaries that seems to incessantly rise up against You in Heaven — שְׁאוֹן קָמֶיךָ עֹלֶה תָמִיד . They themselves are constantly announcing their wickedness.
The primary sources used in the interpretation of the verses of this mizmor are listed below.
א – רש”י, המאירי, בן־רמוך, אבן יחייא, מצודות,רשר”ה
ב – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, בן־רמוך, מצודות, רשר”ה
ג – רש”י, אבן עזרא, רד”ק
ד – רש”י, רשר”ה
ה – רש”י, מדרש תנחומא, בן־רמוך
ו – רד”ק, המאירי, בן־רמוך, מצודות, רשר”ה
ז – המאירי, מצודות, מלבי”ם
ח – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, בן־רמוך
ט – רש”י, רד”ק
י – אבן עזרא, רד”ק, ספורנו, מצודות
יא – רש”י, מצודות, מלבי”ם
יב – רד”ק, אלשיך
יג – רד”ק, בן־רמוך, מצודות, מלבי”ם
יד – רש”י, רד”ק, ספורנו, מצודות
טו – רש”י, רד”ק
טז – רש”י, רד”ק, ספורנו, אלשיך
יז ֹ- רד”ק
יח – רש”י, רד”ק
יט – רש”י, רד”ק, אלשיך
כ – רש”י, המאירי,
כא – רש”י, רד”ק, מצודות, רשר”ה
כב ֹ- רש”י, רד”ק, בן־רמוך, רשר”ה
כג – אבן עזרא, רשר”ה